COP 28 Live Blog - 10th December


Welcome to our live blog of the 28th Conference of the Parties (COP 28) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), taking place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Over the next two weeks, world leaders, policymakers, activists, and experts will gather to discuss and negotiate critical issues related to climate change, biodiversity, and sustainability. The stakes are high, as the world faces a climate crisis that demands urgent and transformative action.
We will be bringing you real-time updates, insights, and exclusive behind-the-scenes glimpses of the event, providing a comprehensive overview of the discussions, decisions, and outcomes of COP 28.

Next: 11th to 13th December

Previous: 9th December

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End Of Day Summary

Updated 00:00h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

Day 10 of COP 28 saw a flurry of activity, with key developments on issues ranging from food security and agriculture to global emissions reduction and adaptation. Here are some of the most important highlights:
  • Deep divisions emerge during “Majlis” session: The “Majlis” session reveals fundamental differences in perspectives on responsibility and action between developed and developing nations. While some urge cooperation and joint effort, others accuse the developed world of hypocrisy and inaction.
  • Ministers express need for urgency and concern: Ministers from various countries express concern about the slow pace of progress and call for immediate action. Some emphasize the need for consensus on fossil fuels and financing, while others highlight the critical importance of adaptation.
  • Draft text for Global Goal on Adaptation released: The long-awaited draft text for the GGA acknowledges the finance gap and the need for equity and CBDR, but lacks urgency and clarity on target setting and implementation.
  • Mary Robinson urges action from nations obstructing a liveable future: Mary Robinson, Chair of The Elders, criticizes countries holding back progress on climate action, including Saudi Arabia and its allies. She calls upon them to abandon their subterfuge and deliver a meaningful outcome for the sake of future generations.
  • UN unveils roadmap to combat hunger and climate change: The UN presents a comprehensive roadmap outlining key targets to achieve food security while aligning with the 1.5°C global temperature rise limit. This includes halving food waste, reducing livestock methane, and ensuring access to clean, safe drinking water for all by 2030.
  • Green Farming Declaration gains traction: Over 150 countries sign the Emirates Declaration on Sustainable Agriculture, committing to reducing agricultural emissions, protecting farmers and workers, and ensuring food security for all.

Mary Robinson Demands Action From “Nations Obstructing Liveable Future”

Updated 22:40h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

Mary Robinson, Chair of The Elders, has issued a warning as COP 28 enters its final days. She called upon nations hindering progress on climate action to abandon their subterfuge and deliver a meaningful outcome that will safeguard the future of generations to come.
She emphasized the urgency and the historic opportunity COP 28 presents for world leaders. Robinson singled out those nations holding talks hostage and benefiting the most from fossil fuels, including Saudi Arabia and its allies. However, she also criticized the US, China, the EU, and India for not actively pushing for progress.
“Those at the negotiating table at COP 28 are steering the course of our shared future: their success or failure will resonate for generations. I fear COP 28 is falling short of what is required to stay within the 1.5C warming threshold. The science tells us we are in grave danger of bequeathing our children a completely unliveable world.

There are countries here with the capacity to ensure the outcome of this summit is historic for the right reasons. They need to lean in now with ambition and urgency. COP 28 presents an opportunity for leaders to be on the right side of history.

Nations obstructing a liveable future must abandon their subterfuge. The nations thwarting progress are those with the greatest stakes in fossil fuels but also the most plentiful resources to act. Saudi Arabia and allies are holding talks hostage. However it is not the only country hindering progress: the USA, China, the EU and India have been happy to hide in the shadows cast.

There is still time for these countries to step up with the courageous leadership required to tackle this existential threat. Governments must not leave this summit without an agreement to phase out all fossil fuels and this agreement must not be at the expense of other critical workstreams here. COP 28 will leave a legacy that those here in Dubai will be remembered for: I call on all and the COP Presidency to make sure it is the right one.”

UN Unveils Roadmap To Combat Hunger And Climate Change

Updated 22:17h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

Today, the United Nations presented a comprehensive roadmap to tackle the intertwined challenges of global hunger and climate change. Recognizing the critical role of reforming food systems, the blueprint outlines key targets to be achieved before 2050, aiming to ensure food security while aligning with the 1.5°C global temperature rise limit.
Among the key goals are:
  • Halving food waste: Reducing global food waste by half would significantly improve food accessibility and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  • 25% reduction in livestock methane: This ambitious target seeks to address the significant methane emissions associated with livestock farming, a major contributor to climate change.
  • Safe drinking water for all by 2030: Ensuring access to clean, safe drinking water for every individual is a crucial step towards improved health and well-being.
  • Sustainable fisheries management by 2030: Implementing responsible practices in fisheries is necessary to guarantee long-term sustainability and protect marine resources.
  • Elimination of traditional biomass cooking by 2030: Replacing traditional biomass fuels, often associated with deforestation and indoor air pollution, with cleaner alternatives will improve environmental and public health outcomes.
While the roadmap provides a clear direction, details on achieving the ambitious targets remain sparse. Concerns persist regarding how food production can be curbed while simultaneously fulfilling the nutritional needs of a growing global population expected to reach 10 billion.
The UN seeks worldwide commitment to this roadmap, envisioning its culmination at COP 30 in Brazil. The coming years will be crucial in translating the plan into action, requiring collaboration between governments, international organizations, and stakeholders across the food system.This roadmap represents a significant step forward in tackling the complex interplay between hunger and climate change. Its success hinges on detailed implementation strategies.

Green Farming Declaration Gains Traction

Updated 20:50h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

Over 150 countries have signed onto the Emirates Declaration on Sustainable Agriculture since its launch just 10 days ago. The declaration commits signatories to several key objectives: reducing agricultural emissions through sustainable practices, protecting farmers and workers from climate impacts, and ensuring food security for all.
“We are in means we are in and we are going to continue raising the bar when it comes to food systems and agriculture...we will keep driving this's now about implementation. We have the political will, we have unlocked the finance...I'm sure you have seen $83 billion of committed investment now mobilised just throughout these days of Cop28 and $3.1 billion of that is going into food systems..we can do more.”
- Mariam Al Mheiri, UAE Minister of Climate Change and Environment
With over one-third of global greenhouse gas emissions originating from agriculture, the Emirates Declaration offers a critical pathway towards a more sustainable future for our planet and its people. The success of this initiative will depend on widespread implementation of sustainable practices and continued international collaboration.

Deep Divisions Emerge During “Majlis” Session

Updated 18:15h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

The “Majlis” session, which has just ended, has starkly highlighted the deep divisions that persist between developed and developing nations in the negotiation rooms. The roundtable discussion, featuring representatives from dozens of countries, exposed fundamental differences in perspectives on responsibility and action.
A representative from Bolivia ignited the debate, accusing developed nations of “hypocrisy, lies, and ignorance” for pushing poorer countries towards decarbonization while continuing ”business as usual” themselves. He specifically criticized the US, Australia, Norway, and Canada, arguing that they were failing to fulfill their historical responsibility for the climate crisis.
“We cannot create an unjust pathway to solving the climate crisis,” emphasizing the need for a clear differentiation between the expected contributions of developed and developing countries.
Japan countered this stance, advocating against “bifurcation,” a term referring to separate emissions reduction paths for different economic groups. Their representative emphasized the need for all nations, regardless of their economic standing, to exert maximum effort in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
However, not all voices echoed the division. Bangladesh's representative, urging introspection over finger-pointing, reminded participants of the global audience scrutinizing their actions.
Al Jaber, reflecting the room's tension, emphasized the urgency of reaching an agreement. He underscored the crucial role of COP28 in demonstrating the UN system's effectiveness in tackling global challenges like climate change, urging nations to bridge their differences and forge a united front towards a common goal.

Ministers Express Need For Urgency And Concern As Talks Continue

Updated 17:40h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

The ongoing “Majlis” session is to serve as a platform for various ministers to share their perspectives on the progress of COP 28 so far. Here's what has been said so far;
AOSIS chair, Toeolesulusulu Cedric Schuster, Minister of Natural Resources, Environment and Lands of Samoa, delivered a passionate plea to delegates, expressing his fear of returning home empty-handed.
“I don’t want to go back and say to whose homes are being lost that I sat around in a circle with leaders and we couldn’t come up with the right mechanism to help..”
Schuster's words resonated with the urgency of the climate crisis, urging delegates to prioritize global well-being over individual agendas.
“I appeal for everyone to do what is right not just for your country but the world...”
Echoing this sentiment, Ireland's Climate Minister, Eamon Ryan, emphasized the severity of climate impacts and the need for immediate action.
“Climate impacts are hitting home....We have to act. This is the peace project of our time.”

Draft Text Proposes Dates For Next COPs

Updated 17:20h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

A draft text published today proposes that Azerbaijan will host COP 29, from November 11th to November 22nd, 2024. The document also proposes dates for COP 30 in Brazil, scheduled for November 10th to November 21st, 2025. However, the text still requires official adoption, which is typically a formality.
Yesterday, multiple outlets, including The Guardian and Reuters, confirmed our initial report. On friday, a high-level diplomatic source confirmed to us that "the pieces have fallen into place" and Azerbaijan would host COP 29.
The decision followed a breakthrough agreement with Armenia and crucial backing from Russia, effectively removing major obstacles from the selection process. Various diplomatic sources have consistently indicated widespread support for Azerbaijan's bid. The selection process had previously stalled due to Russia's objection to any European Union country hosting the event, a "consequence" of ongoing sanctions imposed on Moscow.

COP28 Presidency Prepares Final Package, Al Jaber Calls For Consensus On Fossil Fuels And Financing

Updated 16:33h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

The COP 28 presidency is preparing a final package for delegates, tackling key issues such as fossil fuel phase-out and financing for the just transition. In a media scrum, Sultan Al Jaber urged all parties to agree on strong language regarding greenhouse gas emissions, stating that “the time has come for us to switch gears.”
“We need text agreed by everyone on greenhouse gases. That is a point I will keep pressure on....None of this is surprise. That is how this process works. It boils down to the need for all parties to come to terms that we will deliver the highest ambition. All parties should come to terms with this fact.”

“We are making good progress...Am I satisfied with the speed and the pace? No.”

“Everyone’s experience and national circumstance have merit and will be taken into consideration. We will not neglect any issue...I want to remind everyone of what is really at stake here.”
While China appears open to compromise on the fossil fuel issue, Saudi Arabia remains a holdout. Facing a crucial moment, Al Jaber must utilize his close ties with Saudi Arabia to convince them to support strong language on fossil fuels.
In the negotiation rooms, there is positive engagement from other countries, raising hopes for a successful outcome. However, Russia's position remains unclear. With next year's COP taking place in neighboring Azerbaijan, Russia may choose to avoid outright obstruction.

Colombia Leads Charge Against Fossil Fuels In Negotiations

Updated 16:15h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

Colombian environment minister Susana Muhamad is leading efforts to build a coalition of nations pushing for strong language on phasing out fossil fuels. Muhamad stated that the group will engage with influential countries like Saudi Arabia and India as a united front. Their goal is to secure a commitment to phase out fossil fuel production and consumption, aiming to achieve a 1.5°C temperature limit and a 43% reduction in emissions by 2030.
“We want a phase out of production and consumption. We want 1.5C. We want a 43% reduction [of fossil fuels] by 2030. If we don’t reach 2030, there is not another opportunity to do this...we should not be hostage to the economic plans of countries when this is the requirement...Adaptation is the most important thing for us...adaptation goals have to be agreed at this Cop. Otherwise it's a message that the lives of people in the Global South don't matter..”

New Fossil Fuel Pledges Fall Short Of 1.5°C Goal - IEA

Updated 14:40h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

Despite a surge of new commitments made at the start of COP28, the International Energy Agency (IEA) has delivered sobering news: current pledges by countries and fossil fuel companies are insufficient to achieve the critical 1.5°C global warming limit.
The IEA analyzed two key pledges made on December 2nd:
  • 130 countries committed to tripling renewable energy and improving energy efficiency by 2030.
  • 52 oil and gas companies pledged to stop flaring and eliminate almost all methane leaks by 2030.
While these commitments are undoubtedly positive steps, the IEA estimates they would only reduce emissions by 4 billion metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent by 2030. This represents a mere 30% of the required emissions reduction needed to limit warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
“These pledges would not be nearly enough to move the world onto a path to reaching international climate targets.”
This news casts a shadow over the optimism surrounding COP 28, highlighting the stark gap between current commitments and the ambitious goals set by the Paris Agreement.
The IEA report emphasizes the need for:
  • Deeper emission cuts: Countries must go beyond current pledges and implement more stringent policies to accelerate the transition away from fossil fuels.
  • Concrete implementation plans: Vague commitments must be translated into clear and actionable plans with measurable milestones and robust monitoring systems.
  • Enhanced financial support: Developed nations must fulfill their pledge to provide $100 billion annually in climate finance to support developing countries in their transition to clean energy.

UN Chief Guterres Calls For Deep Emission Cuts

Updated 13:36h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

In a stark warning delivered at the Doha Forum, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres urged world leaders to agree on “deep cuts” to greenhouse gas emissions.
Guterres emphasized the critical importance of achieving the 1.5-degree target set by the Paris Agreement, stating, “We need far more ambition to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and ensure climate justice.” He highlighted the dangerous reality of our current trajectory: “Despite promises and pledges, our climate is in breakdown. Emissions are at an all-time high. And fossil fuels are a major cause.”
The UN chief directed a pointed message towards fossil fuel companies, urging them to “use their enormous resources to lead the renewables revolution.” He acknowledged the magnitude of the challenge ahead, but stressed the necessity of transformative action: “This is the only road not only to climate sustainability, but economic sustainability.”

Draft Global Goal On Adaptation Text

Updated 12:53h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

The long-awaited draft text for the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA) has finally been released today. This collective commitment, initially proposed by the African group in 2013, aims to drive political action and finance for adaptation to climate change. However, concerns about its design, scope, implementation, tracking, and financial responsibility have hampered progress for the past eight years. The draft text released today is a mixed bag, offering both hope and disappointments for developing countries.
Finance Gap Highlighted, but Urgency Missing: The draft text acknowledges the substantial finance gap for adaptation, urging developed countries to double their contributions from 2019 levels by 2025. However, this falls short of the urgency emphasized by the latest UN report, which stated that adaptation finance needs to reach a staggering $194-366 billion annually. The draft also fails to mention this crucial report, raising questions about its commitment to tackling the finance gap effectively.
Equity and CBDR Under Attack: One of the most contentious issues surrounding the GGA is Equity and Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR). This principle recognizes the historical responsibility of developed countries for climate change and stresses their greater obligation to provide support to developing nations. Unfortunately, some developed countries are pushing back against this principle, even inserting a "no text" option into the draft regarding CBDR. This resistance threatens to undermine the very foundation of equitable climate action.
Target Setting Delayed: Setting clear and measurable targets is crucial for the GGA's effectiveness. However, the draft proposes a two-year work program to develop metrics for measuring progress in key areas. This delay further hinders progress and prevents the GGA from becoming a truly actionable framework.
Positive Elements Remain: Despite the shortcomings, the draft text does contain some positive elements. It acknowledges the importance of human rights, intergenerational rights, social justice, and vulnerable groups. It also highlights the need for social protection measures and addresses cascading risks associated with climate change.
Overall, the draft text on the GGA leaves much to be desired. While it acknowledges key issues like finance and equity, it lacks the necessary urgency and commitment to move forward with concrete action.

Stiell Faces Questions On Value Of High-Level Participation

Updated 12:35h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

In a briefing with observer constituencies, UNFCCC Executive Secretary Simon Stiell faced questions regarding the value and impact of high-level participation at climate conferences. Some observers expressed concern that the media frenzy surrounding leaders detracts from the real negotiations.
Concerns were also raised about the large number of participants, including fossil fuel lobbyists, potentially overshadowing key civil society voices. Executive Secretary Stiell reiterated his commitment to ensuring a fair and inclusive process.

Ministers And Heads Of Delegations Call For Ambitious Action

Updated 12:20h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

At the Resumed High-Level Segment, ministers delivered statements emphasizing the urgency of climate action. Key themes included:
  • Phase Out Fossil Fuels: Many ministers, particularly from small island states and vulnerable countries, called for the immediate phase-out of fossil fuels and an end to fossil fuel subsidies.
  • Finance: Several ministers stressed the need for developed countries to fulfill their finance commitments and make climate finance accessible to vulnerable countries. This includes both adaptation and mitigation finance, as well as grants instead of loans.
  • Loss and Damage: There was strong support for the establishment of a loss and damage fund, with calls for its sustained capitalization and expeditious access.
  • Adaptation: Ministers highlighted the importance of adaptation, particularly for vulnerable countries, and called for doubling adaptation finance.
  • Implementation: Several ministers expressed frustration with the lack of progress on implementation and called for a more robust framework for the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA).
  • Science-Based Action: Ministers emphasized the need for all countries to take ambitious and science-based action to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees Celsius.
  • Equitable Transition: Many ministers stressed the importance of ensuring a just transition to a low-carbon economy that benefits all communities.

Informal Plenary Lays Groundwork For Further Negotiations

Updated 11:50h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

The informal plenary session provided some clarity regarding progress and future steps. An agreement was reached on guidelines for the Green Climate Fund and support for developing countries' transparency reporting. However, other outstanding issues remain unresolved.
Discussions on finance and Article 6 mechanisms will continue at the technical level. Meanwhile, the Presidency will engage with parties to refine bridging proposals on all unresolved issues. Starting today, ministers and heads of delegations will convene in the "Majlis" format to discuss the proposed package.

Progress Stalls In Mitigation Talks While Just Transition Forges Ahead

Updated 11:20h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

Yesterday, the intricate dance of climate negotiations continued. As is typical in late-stage discussions, progress was uneven across various workstreams. While some sessions yielded positive outcomes, others remained stuck in a deadlock.
Consultations on just transition pathways showcased encouraging progress. Parties constructively engaged with draft decision text and agreed on further discussions within a dedicated drafting group. However, the mitigation work program proved a point of contention. Parties voiced concerns about the draft text, highlighting its misalignment with the program's mandate.

Good Morning!

Updated 11:00h GST/UTC+4 - 10/12/23

Welcome back to our continued live coverage of COP 28! We'll keep delivering the latest updates, expert insights, and exclusive peeks into the negotiations.
  • Princess

    16 w

    Thanks for sharing.

    • Christina Carlmark

      17 w

      Excellent summary!

      Welcome, let's solve the climate crisis together
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