COP 28 Live Blog - 11th to 13th December


Welcome to our live blog of the 28th Conference of the Parties (COP 28) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), taking place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Over the next two weeks, world leaders, policymakers, activists, and experts will gather to discuss and negotiate critical issues related to climate change, biodiversity, and sustainability. The stakes are high, as the world faces a climate crisis that demands urgent and transformative action.
We will be bringing you real-time updates, insights, and exclusive behind-the-scenes glimpses of the event, providing a comprehensive overview of the discussions, decisions, and outcomes of COP 28.

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Thank You For Following Our Live Blog!

Updated 17:15h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

The gavel has fallen, and COP 28 has officially concluded. After two weeks of intense negotiations, punctuated by moments of both hope and frustration, President Sultan Al Jaber has declared the summit closed.
“....true victory for those who are sincere in addressing climate change”

National Statements Update: Navigating Progress And Concerns

Updated 16:59h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

The last hour at the closing plenary of COP 28 has seen a flurry of reactions to the Global Stocktake agreement, with national statements offering a mix of cautious optimism and pointed critiques.
  • Ghana: Calls for fairness in the draft, criticizing the timeline for fossil fuels while demanding clarity on expectations for other greenhouse gas sources like methane, particularly for developing countries.
  • Indonesia: Celebrates the agreement but acknowledges hard compromises and emphasizes the need for differentiated approaches for different countries. Expresses disappointment in the lack of focus on Indigenous people.
  • Paraguay: Welcomes the agreement but raises concerns about insufficient climate financing and the potential impact of methane curbs on their agriculture-dependent economy. Reiterates the right to development for developing countries.
  • Senegal: Echoes concerns about climate finance, emphasizing its crucial role for developing nations. Underscores the urgency of climate action, declaring, "We are fighting for our survival, and we are fighting for climate justice."
  • Palau: Praises the UAE presidency's vision for a fossil-free world but criticizes loopholes like carbon capture and the weak phrasing "transition away" instead of "phase out." Calls for immediate action and course correction.
  • Nigeria: Warns that the agreement's outcomes could stifle developing countries without adequate transition support like finance and technology. Urges developed countries to provide more support.
  • Ethiopia: Applauds the loss and damage fund but emphasizes its need to remain responsive to the most vulnerable countries. Encourages exceeding, not just meeting, climate targets.

Unfinished Business Looms Large, 12 Agenda Items Relegated To "Rule 16" Limbo

Updated 16:00h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
Carbon Brief
Carbon Brief

The final hours of COP 28 are buzzing with a peculiar mix of progress and delay. While the much-anticipated Global Stocktake has crossed the finish line, a disconcerting number of other decisions and documents remain outstanding.
The Carbon Brief tracker paints a stark picture. Draft texts for numerous work tracks are either missing or haven't secured final approval. While bustling side business is par for the course in these mammoth conferences, the sheer volume of unfinished work is raising eyebrows.
This isn't entirely unusual – ancillary technical matters often get sidelined. But the sheer number of issues relegated to "Rule 16" limbo – a chilling euphemism for "come back and try again next year" – is unprecedented. At least 12 agenda items have been unceremoniously bumped to future, their fate hanging precariously in the balance. This casts a long shadow over COP 28's legacy. Will this summit, like its post-Paris Agreement predecessors, leave a trail of unfinished business for future negotiations to grapple with?

Canoe Leaks And Papal Concern

Updated 15:12h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

Fossil fuel worries and inclusion concerns simmer as delegates react to the GST agreement. Here's a quick wrap of the national statements delivered in the last 45 minutes;
Chile: Emphasized concerns about fossil fuel subsidies and transitional fuels, specifically gas. Pushed for concrete youth inclusion in policies and highlighted the precarious access to climate finance faced by ambitious middle-income countries.
Marshall Islands: Delivered a powerful statement, likening the agreement to a leaky canoe and stressing the urgency of stronger action. Emphasized the need for fossil fuel phase-out and the importance of inclusion and equity.
“I came from my home islands to work with you to solve the greatest challenge of our generations, to build a canoe....We have built a canoe with a weak and leaky hull. Yet we have to put it into the water because we have no other option. We must sail this canoe. It has a strong sail. We must be honest: there has not been inclusion, the fact that this decision was gavelled (without opening the floor for discussions) unacceptable...We need to phase out fossil fuels. Our job was clear, to keep 1.5C alive and to keep the world liveable as temperatures arrive. It’s a small step in the right direction. In the context of the real world, it is not enough. This year, I hope the islands are heard...As we sail this leaky canoe together, let’s agree to plug the leaks for the sake of all of us, especially the most vulnerable.”
Vatican: Expressed concern about unfulfilled hopes of future generations and the need for a science-based transition. Underlined the principles of equity and intergenerational justice, quoting the Pope's call to action.
”We must also consider intergenerational justice and our is important to give hope and secure a liveable common home for our children...A lot of work is still ahead of us and we have a duty towards those who are rightly demanding that we as leaders act in their name...What would induce anyone at this stage to hold on to power, only to be remembered for their inability to take action when they were able to do so?”
While the agreement has been reached, concerns remain about its strength and inclusivity. The need for stronger action on fossil fuels, youth inclusion, and equitable finance is clear.

“What's Going On?”

Updated 14:25h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

The closing plenary remains abuzz with voices as diverse groups and parties deliver their statements on the Global Stocktake decision. Progress is steady, but the marathon continues – many more decisions await adoption before the final curtain falls on COP 28.

National Statements Update: Fossil Fuel Concerns, Carbon Market Transparency, And Multilateralism

Updated 13:55h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

A quick recap of the national statements in the last 30 minutes;
  • Antigua and Barbuda sounded the alarm on the term "transition fuels" in the text, urging a complete shift away from all fossil fuels, including LNG and natural gas. While praising the mention of fossil fuel transition in the text for the first time, they expressed concern about potential loopholes.
  • Transparency demanded in carbon markets: Honduras, representing the alliance of tropical forest countries, passionately advocated for a strong regulatory framework and strict transparency in carbon markets. They warned against carbon fraud and called for measures to ensure proper functioning.
  • Latin America and the Caribbean weigh in: Guatemala, speaking on behalf of AILAC, welcomed the loss and damage fund's establishment and initial pledges, but stressed the need for firmer language in the final text. They emphasized the need for immediate action aligned with science and a 43% emissions reduction target by 2030, requiring global participation. They highlighted the need for multilateralism and support for developing countries.
  • South Korea hails progress and innovation: South Korea commended the loss and damage fund creation and appreciated the "Majlis" gathering for fostering agreement. They emphasized the global stocktake's role in keeping 1.5°C within reach and expressed support for technological innovation, potentially hinting at carbon capture and storage inclusion. They concluded by declaring COP28 a historic milestone for multilateralism and reaffirmed the unwavering commitment to climate action.

Quick Update On National Statements So Far

Updated 13:45h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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As COP 28 winds down, national statements from various countries reveal a complex tapestry of progress, concerns, and cautious optimism.
Saudi Arabia: Emphasized common but differentiated responsibilities and supported the use of all available technologies, including carbon capture, to reduce emissions.
“Its outcome allows us to maintain 1.5C in accordance with every nation. We emphasise the UN principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. This principle must be upheld as in the Paris agreement. It supports different approaches to deal with different approaches. We must use every opportunity to reduce emissions regardless of the source,”
Turkey: Praised the organization of COP 28 and reiterated its offer to host COP31. Announced hosting of the first IPCC meeting next year in Istanbul.
“We are extremely pleased that COP 29 will be held next year in our brotherly country Azerbaijan. The first meeting of the IPCC next year will be held in Istanbul in Janary, which shows the importance we attribute to climate action.”
Colombia: Welcomed the progress but warned of loopholes that could undermine the goal of 1.5°C. Called for an end to fossil fuel production expansion and thanked young activists and indigenous communities. And expressed solidarity with the people of Palestine.
“First I want to communicate my greetings and thanks to the presidency, the UAE for its commitment and very professional team. It has been remarkable. You acted on good faith. The process intended to bring the parties together.
The text reflects the political reality of this plenary. President Petro defines the struggle of this century between fossil capital and life. We were able to live an intense discussion that was able to make a step forward, but there are also loopholes which may create difficulties for us making 1.5C. It is the first time science has influenced the decision of the COP in such a deep way...I invite scientists to continue with their hard work around the world, because it is opening doors.
The loopholes can undermine the political will. Right now, in the financial section of the text, we do not have the economics required for the deep transition... The production of fossil fuels needs to start being reduced. THe frontier of extraction needs to stop...We only have 6 years to show we can materialise in reality what we have just agreed in text. I want to thank the young people at this COP, the young people, the indigenous activists,”
India: Emphasized equity and climate justice as key principles moving forward.
“The way ahead must be based on equity and climate justice. Let us carry this spirit of cooperation towards building a sustainable planet,”
China: Reiterated the need for both ambition and pragmatism in climate action. Urged developed countries to take responsibility and deliver on their commitments. Opposed unilateral measures and called for international unity.
”I wish to thank you as the president of the Cop for working hard, day and night. Yesterday marks the 8th anniversary of the adoption of the Paris agreement...It is China’s view that climate action must feature both ambition and pragmatism. The key is still pragmatic actions and delivering on the commitments. The means of implementation must match the ambitions...Developed countries have an unshakable historical responsibility for climate change and must take the lead to materialise net zero as soon as possible. Deliver without delay to ensure a global just transition. It is China’s core that we have but one planet. To tackle the climate crisis, the international community must react and unite and resist the unilateral measures that undermine the process. China will firmly implement the national strategy for climate action”

EU Hails Agreement As "Beginning of the End" Of Fossil Fuels

Updated 13:30h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

Speaking earlier during the plenary, Wopke Hoekstra, EU climate chief, expressed his gratitude to the conference organizers and declared, "Humanity has finally done what is long overdue. Thirty years we've spent to arrive at the beginning of the end of fossil fuels." This sentiment was echoed by Teresa Ribera, co-leader of the EU delegation, who praised the strong leadership and collective commitment to this critical step.
“We pay attention to what Samoa has said – climate justice still needs our engagement and our work...But this step forward and our joint commitment delivers much more in a critical decade. We welcome the strong leadership by all delegates. We think this is a very relevant and positive step forward and we are very happy to take this step with all of you.”

US Climate Envoy Acknowledges Compromise, Highlights Positive Signal

Updated 13:15h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

Earlier, John Kerry, US climate change envoy, acknowledged the complex process of reaching consensus among 200 diverse nations amidst global challenges. He commended the agreement as "a document that reflects two years of sending a very strong signal to the world." He emphasized the crucial points: adhering to the 1.5°C goal, aligning future NDCs with this target, and urgently peaking greenhouse gas emissions.
“For the first time in the history of our regime, the decision calls for transitioning away for fossil fuels to achieve net zero by 2050. We would have liked clearer language about the need to begin peaking. We would know this was a compromise between parties.”

Switzerland Calls For Urgent Action And Laments Missing Human Rights Focus

Updated 13:00h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

Switzerland has urged countries to step up their climate commitments and warning that the future rests on ditching fossil fuels to keep the 1.5°C goal alive. Speaking to the plenary, the Swiss representative emphasized the need for a strong and urgent energy package to deliver on this crucial turning point. Their message was clear: the success of COP 28 hinges on concrete action, not just words.
While acknowledging progress on aligning financial flows with the Paris Agreement, Switzerland expressed disappointment at the lack of a more ambitious plan. They also voiced regret at the disappearance of references to human rights in the discussions around loss and damage, a vital concern that deserves attention.

Cuba Says 1.5°C "North Star" At Risk

Updated 12:30h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

In an address to the plenary, the Cuban delegate acknowledged the conference's progress while highlighting the stark realities facing the world. Recognizing this as "one of the most difficult and complex COPs since Paris," he emphasized the urgency of action, with the ever-narrowing window to limit global warming to 1.5°C serving as "our north star."
“We recognise the importance and results achieved in this conference. This has been one of the most difficult and complex COPS since Paris. The increase in emissions and closing windows to keep global warming within 1.5C has been characterised as our north star...In Cuba, we stand ready to do more to make our energy matrix entirely renewable. But this is not enough. We need huge resources in addition to domestic resources which are competing with loss and damage and sustainable development goals. The decisions we take here must be fully consistent with realities. The main stumbling block to 1.5C is the lack of emission reductions and the failure of developed countries to help developing countries.”

Bolivia Calls For Climate Justice And Paradigm Shift

Updated 12:10h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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Bolivia has taken the floor during the plenary, delivering a passionate address focused on climate justice and the historical responsibility of developed nations. The spokesperson's message was clear: developing countries bear the brunt of a crisis they didn't create.
“These last eight years saw developed countries working intensely to erode and erase their responsibilities. We are seeing the worsening of a more unjust and inequitable world, more inequity and injustice are no solution to the problems of more inequity and injustice around the world...Developed countries have not decided to take on the lead on the climate crisis or change their lifestyles. Developed countries that have plans to expand fossil fuels up to 2050 are running counter to the science. Our true north star is even further beyond its reach. Those that are most responsible for the expansion of fossil fuels are now the great champions of the north star...we would like to enter a reservation about common but differentiated responsibilities...Sir, we are once again victims of neocolonialism. We need a paradigm shift..

“Developed countries talk about there being no financing for climate change but they put enormous amounts of money into funding an enormous industrial machinery and war on the planet. Developed countries talk about human rights while they provoke the genocide of our sisters and brothers in Palestine.”

Confusion And Concerns Amid Adoption Of Texts

Updated 11:45h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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Confusion swept the plenary hall as Sultan Al Jaber gavelled through the final texts without opening the floor for further statements. Delegates, anticipating a day of final debates, were caught off guard by the abrupt shift.
The Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), led by Anne Rasmussen of Samoa, questioned the process, highlighting their absence during the announcement and raising concerns about the adequacy of the text in addressing the scientific urgency of the climate crisis.
“We didn’t want to interrupt the standing ovation – but we are confused. It seems you just gavelled the decision and the small island states were not in the room...The draft text you have has many strong elements. We welcome technology. The question we have considered is whether they are enough. We have come to the conclusion that the course correction we have needed has not been secured....It is not enough to reference the science and then ignore what the science is telling us we should do.”
This incident echoes similar moments of tension at previous COP Conferences, notably the Biodiversity COP 15 in Montreal and the Paris Agreement negotiations. In both cases, concerns raised by developing nations were initially ignored before being addressed later, raising questions about the legitimacy and inclusivity of the UN consensus process.

Just Transition Work Programme Adopted

Updated 11:35h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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The hall echoed with another round of applause, albeit briefer this time, as the "UAE Just Transition Work Programme" was officially adopted, facing no objections.

UN Climate Chief Stiell Delivers Strong Message

Updated 11:25h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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Action, not words, is the key takeaway from Simon Stiell's address. He emphasized the need for concrete steps on renewables, resilience, and phasing out fossil fuels.
“I want to started by thanking the UAE for hosting us. We needed this COP to send clear signals on several fronts. We needed a green light in renewables, climate and resilience....At every stage, climate action must drive action side by side with human development and dignity. They are a climate action lifeline, not a finish line. Governments need to turn it into real economy outcomes without delay...Beginning of the end for fossil fuels. All parties must agree on every word, every comma, every full stop. Indeed, it underscores how much these UN conferences can achieve.

We must get on with the job of putting the Paris agreement to full work...In early 2025, countries must deliver new NDCs. It must bring us into alignment with a 1.5C world. We will keep working to improve the process....Without these conferences we would be headed for 5 degrees. We’re currently headed for 3 degrees.

I thank you for doing everything possible to keep us on the straight and narrow...My final message is to ordinary people everywhere. Everyone one of you is making a difference. Your voices and determination will be more important than ever...we are still in this race. We will be with you every step of the way.”

Applause And Discord As Fossil Fuel Language Makes Debut

Updated 11:20h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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Following the historic adoption of the first Global Stocktake decision, a moment of tension and discord emerged. As COP 28 President Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber declared, "We have language on fossil fuel for the first time ever," the Saudi delegation reportedly remained silent, refusing to join in the celebratory applause.

Global Stocktake Text Adopted!

Updated 11:15h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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A wave of thunderous applause just swept through the halls of COP 28 as Parties to the Paris Agreement formally adopted the decision text on the first-ever Global Stocktake with no objections.
”Through the night and the early hours, we worked collectively for consensus. The presidency listened, engaged and guided. I promised I would roll up my sleeves. I promised I would be with you. You did step up, you showed flexibility, you put common interest ahead of self interest. Let us finish what we started. Let us unite, act and now deliver...We have the basis to make transformations change happen – let us finish what we have started

From the bottom of my heart, thank you. We have travelled a long road together in a short amount of time. We have worked very hard to secure a better future for our people and planet. We should be proud of our historic achievements. My country, UAE, is proud of its role in helping you move forward.

We have delivered a comprehensive response to the global stocktake. We have delivered a robust action plan to keep 1.5°C in reach. It is a balanced plan that addresses emissions… it is built on common ground. It is strengthened by full inclusivity. It is a historic package to accelerate climate action. It is the UAE consensus.

Many said this could not be done. When I spoke to you at the very start, I promised a different sort of Cop, private and public sectors… everyone came together from day one. Everyone united, acted and delivered. We operationalised loss and damage and filled the fund. We delivered world first after world first.

It is built on common ground, it is strengthened by full inclusivity. It is enhanced, balanced but make no mistake, a historic package. For the first time, to deliver on methane and emissions. We have language on fossil fuels in our final agreement for the first time ever.

Let me sound a word of caution. Any agreement is only as good as its implementation. We are what we do, not what we say. We must turn this agreement into tangible action. If we unite, we can have a profound effect on all of our futures. Inclusivity kept us going in the difficult days. Everyone has been heard, from Indigenous peoples or youth to global south.

We have reframed the conversation around climate finance. We have intergrated the real economy into the climate challenge....Colleagues and friends, it has been a personal privilege to guide this conference...I would like to express my deepest gratitude to all that made this happen. To every country who made it a success, I say thank you. You have come in record numbers. You care deeply about the future of this wonderful planet and so do I.

To my family, of whom I’ve seen far too little of this year, you inspire me and motivate me. I thank you. Colleagues, our task was to build on the foundations of what others have built for us. Future generations may not know your names but they’ll owe every single one of your a debt of gratitude. If it wasn’t for your collective effort, we would not have been able to achieve this historic achievement. I thank you again.”
- Sultan Al Jaber, COP 28 President

Plenary Session Kicks Off After Lengthy Delay

Updated 11:10h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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After a tense wait stretching over 45 minutes, the final plenary session of COP 28 has finally begun. Anticipation, punctuated by the occasional murmur or restless shuffle, had filled the hall as delegates awaited the official start. Now, with a gavel bang and a call to order, the stage is set for the culmination of two weeks of intense negotiations. The reason for the delay remains shrouded in whispers. Some speculate on last-minute revisions to the draft agreement, while others hint at eleventh-hour consultations between key players

Activists Press For Strong Commitments In Final Minutes

Updated 10:20h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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Outside, activists line the entrance of Al Hairat, their voices rising in a chorus of “HoldTheLine,” urging negotiators to commit to a swift, equitable, permanent, and fully-funded phase-out of fossil fuels.
Inside the hall, a cautious optimism prevails. Delegates express quiet confidence that the current COP 28 texts will be adopted, with only minor adjustments expected. However, a surprise objection or a last-minute push for revisions cannot be entirely ruled out. The air hangs heavy with a mixture of hope and uncertainty.

Plenary Delayed, But Delegates Flock To The Hall

Updated 10:10h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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The closing plenary, initially scheduled for 10:00h, has been pushed back to 10:30h local time. However, this delay hasn't dampened the anticipation. In fact, the hall is starting to buzz with activity as delegates from around the world arrive, their faces etched with a mix of determination and fatigue after two weeks of intense negotiations.
The reason for the delay remains unclear, but whispers of last-minute tweaks to the draft agreement and ongoing consultations between key players are circulating. This unexpected pause provides a brief moment of respite, but the tension in the air is thick. Everyone knows the clock is still ticking, and the stakes couldn't be higher.

Tensions High As COP 28 Hurtles Towards The “Closing” Plenary

Updated 09:51h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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The clock ticks down, minutes morphing into seconds, as the anticipation is palpable. With less than 10 minutes to go until the closing plenary, the atmosphere at COP 28 is a charged cocktail of hope, frustration, and everything in between. Negotiators have been locked in marathon sessions, scrambling to find common ground on key issues like fossil fuel phase-out and finance for developing nations. The draft text remains contentious, with major players voicing concerns about its ambition and effectiveness.
Will this be a Paris moment, a landmark agreement that sets the world on a path to a sustainable future? Or will it be a Copenhagen redux, a missed opportunity that leaves us teetering on the brink of climate catastrophe?

Final Stocktake Text Draws Mixed Reactions

Updated 09:30h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

Reactions are pouring in from all corners on the final text. While some hail it as a historic step towards a fossil-free future, others argue it falls short of what's needed.
Norway's Climate Minister, Espen Barth Eide, sees the text as a breakthrough, marking the first time the world unites behind a clear call to move away from fossil fuels. He views this as a significant accomplishment after years of skirting around the issue.
“It is the first time that the world unites around such a clear text on the need to transition away from fossil fuels...It has been the elephant in the room, at last, we address it head-on. This is the outcome of extremely many conversations and intense diplomacy.”
WWF's Stephen Cornelius, however, finds the text's fossil fuel language improved but still insufficient. While it avoids the outright outrage of earlier drafts, it doesn't go so far as demanding a complete phase-out of coal, oil, and gas.
“This draft is a sorely needed improvement from the last version, which rightly caused outrage....The language on fossil fuels is much improved, but still falls short of calling for the full phase-out of coal, oil and gas.”
NGO Destination Zero founder Catherine Abreu is more optimistic. She highlights the text's clear signal towards a fossil-fuel-free future, calling for global efforts to shift away from these fuels within this decade, aligning with 1.5°C climate goals.
“This text provides a very clear signal on the end of the fossil fuel era, calling on all parties to contribute to global efforts to transition away from fossil fuels, beginning in this decade, in keeping with the science of 1.5°C.”
However, Romain Loualalen from Oil Change International expresses concerns about loopholes. He warns that a massive expansion of fossil gas production could still occur under this text, jeopardizing any hope of limiting global warming to 1.5°C. He emphasizes the need for a major financial shift towards renewable energy to truly move beyond fossil fuels.
“If we see a massive expansion of fossil gas production as a result of this, then any hope of limiting warning to 1.5C will be gone...It's about time that investments shifted away from fossil fuels and towards renewable energy...And that will only happen if there is a massive shift of finance towards, towards renewable energy and away from fossil fuels.”
As COP 28 nears its conclusion, the final stocktake text remains a subject of debate. While it represents progress on the fossil fuel front, it's unclear if it goes far enough to ensure a sustainable future.

“A Call to Action, But What Will It Mean?”

Updated 09:20h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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The latest draft texts at COP 28 are drawing attention to their use of the term "calls on," sparking criticism on its potential impact. While seemingly straightforward, within the intricate language of UNFCCC agreements, this phrase carries specific weight.
Firstly, "calls on" falls under the category of "invitation" or "request" in the legal framework of the UNFCCC. This means it doesn't hold the same binding power as stronger terms like "shall" or "must," which are more definitive in demanding action.
Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, "calls on" represents the weakest option among the spectrum of terms used to urge action. This has led to concerns that it might not be strong enough to drive meaningful progress on critical climate goals.
The implications of this choice are significant. While "calls on" can still serve as a valuable tool for raising awareness and encouraging action, it's crucial to acknowledge its limitations. It's up to the parties involved to translate this "call" into concrete commitments and tangible steps towards achieving the Paris Agreement objectives.

Plenary Now Scheduled For 10 AM

Updated 08:20h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

According to a notification sent to delegates from the COP 28 Presidency, the Plenary is now scheduled for 10:00h. An earlier notification sent to Chairs, Coordinators, and Focal Points said the COP 28 Presidency will convene the plenary at 09:30h.

New Stocktake Text Calls For "Transition" Away From Fossil Fuels By 2050

Updated 07:55h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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The latest global stocktake text, released this morning, calls on nations to "transition" from fossil fuels and achieve net zero emissions by 2050. While not explicitly demanding a "phase-out," the language represents a stronger stance compared to earlier drafts.
The proposed text, set for endorsement by countries, states; "...transitioning away from fossil fuels in energy systems, in a just, orderly and equitable manner, accelerating action in this critical decade, so as to achieve net zero by 2050 in keeping with the science".
Significantly, the text also urges countries to "...accelerate efforts towards the phase-down of unabated coal power," a point likely to face resistance from major coal-dependent economies like India and China.

Revised Draft Texts Published!

Updated 06:55h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23
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After hours of anticipation, the COP 28 Presidency has just published the revised draft texts, injecting a fresh wave of energy into the conference. Delegates and observers are now poring over its contents, dissecting its implications and formulating their responses.
The atmosphere is electric, a mix of cautious optimism and simmering anxieties. While some see the revised text as a step closer to a concrete agreement, others remain skeptical, waiting for the inevitable critiques and concerns to bubble up.
Countries are already gearing up to raise their voices. Whether it's concerns about specific language, calls for further ambition, or anxieties over equity and implementation, the coming hours promise to be filled with lively debate and diplomatic maneuvering.
It's still too early to predict whether this revised text will be the bridge to a successful COP 28 or another stumbling block on the road.

Texts To Be Published By 6:00 AM, Plenary Scheduled For 9:30 AM

Updated 01:15h GST/UTC+4 - 13/12/23

As per a notification sent to Chairs, Coordinators, and Focal Points, all texts are scheduled to be published at 06:00h. Subsequently, the COP 28 Presidency will convene the plenary at 09:30h.

Article 6 Contact Groups Conclude With Mixed Results

Updated 23:45h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23
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The contact groups for Article 6 under the Paris Agreement have wrapped up, leaving a mixed bag of outcomes. While some proposals were met with relief for their failure to pass, others continue to raise concerns.
The consultation on Article 6.4, focused on market mechanisms, ended without reaching consensus. This comes as a victory for many who advocated against its weak environmental and human rights safeguards. Similar to 6.4, the text for Article 6.2, dealing with non-market approaches, also failed to gain widespread acceptance. Objections focused on its inadequacy in ensuring environmental integrity and protecting human rights.
While Article 6.8 on non-market approaches with corresponding adjustments was adopted, concerns remain about its shortcomings. The lack of robust safeguards again emerged as a major point of contention. Intensive negotiations around article 6 are expected in the coming hours.

Consultations To Countinue Until 3 AM GST

Updated 22:33h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23

Intensive negotiations are ongoing as the COP Presidency seeks to build consensus on a revised stocktake document. Following consultations throughout the day and evening with various negotiating groups and parties, a spokesperson for the presidency has just announced that talks will continue until 3:00h GST.
“Overnight and throughout today, the COP 28 President and his team have been engaging in extensive consultations with a wide representation of negotiating groups and Parties. This is to ensure everyone is heard, and all views are considered. He is determined to deliver a version of the text that has the support of all Parties. Consultations will continue until 03:00AM GST.”
Furthermore, the German delegation's spokesperson anticipates a plenary session around 8:00h GST tomorrow, where countries are likely to be asked to endorse the revised text. However, other sources suggest that the current pace might necessitate another "majlis" and a closing plenary at around 10:00h GST.

Article 6 Text Draws Criticism

Updated 21:55h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23
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Tensions are rising at COP 28 as reactions to the Article 6 text begin to solidify. Activists are calling the proposed text “unacceptable,” raising concerns about its potential to legitimize fossil fuel industry practices and exacerbate inequalities. The proposed text also faces scrutiny for its potential impact on Indigenous Peoples and human rights. Critics argue that Article 6, in its current form, risks overlooking or even harming these vulnerable communities.
”The Article 6 texts are unacceptable. The global carbon markets are essentially bank accounts for fossil fuel industries to lie their way out of extraction...At this point the inconsistencies, inequalities and harm that Article 6 will cause to the rights of Indigenous Peoples, human right and the planet is undeniable.”
- Tamra Gilbertson, Indigenous Environmental Network

Late Night Progress But Fossil Fuels Remain Hurdle

Updated 20:45h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23

The ongoing bilateral talks between the COP 28 Presidency and parties has yielded a little progress and two new drafts have been published. However, the thorny issue of fossil fuels continues to be the elephant in the room, dividing negotiators and threatening to stall further advancements.
The first draft text focuses on the work program for non-market approaches under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, specifically those referred to in paragraph 8 and decision 4/CMA.3. This draft outlines potential steps for implementing these approaches, which aim to reduce emissions through collaboration without relying on carbon markets. The second draft text tackles cooperative approaches under Article 6, paragraph 2, and decision 2/CMA.3. Released alongside the first text, it provides guidance on how countries can work together to achieve emission reductions and share mitigation outcomes. Both drafts represent significant progress in the negotiations, offering concrete pathways for parties to implement key aspects of Article 6.
Also, contact groups for the three sub-items on cooperative approaches to implement the Paris Agreement (Article 6) are now scheduled for tonight from 22:00h GST. This will be the first scheduled sessions for today.
Despite the positive developments, the issue of fossil fuels remains a major sticking point. Many developing countries are pushing for strong language phasing out fossil fuels in the final COP 28 agreement. However, developed nations, particularly those with significant fossil fuel industries, are hesitant to commit to such a drastic step. This divergence in priorities threatens to derail progress on other critical issues, casting a shadow over the overall success of COP 28.

No Text Expected Till Midnight, COP 28 Presidency Convenes Late-Night Bilateral Session

Updated 20:10h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23

The COP 28 Presidency is currently holding a bilateral with all groups, the meeting started at 19:30h and is expected to tackle various critical topics. Sources indicate that no draft text is expected to be published until midnight, when the meeting is expected to end.

Waiting For Key Draft Texts

Updated 19:15h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23

Delays persist as the clock ticks at COP 28. We're over an hour past the expected release of new texts on several critical topics:
  • Global Stocktake
  • Global Goal on Adaptation
  • Mitigation Work Programme
  • Just Transition Pathways Work Programme

Finance Draft Texts Published

Updated 18:55h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23
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While the highly anticipated draft text on the Global Stocktake remains elusive, COP 28 is seeing progress on the finance front. Draft decision texts on various financial issues are rolling in;
  • The New Collective Quantified Goal (NCQG)
  • Financial Mechanism Review

A Simmering Atmosphere Awaits The Revised Draft

Updated 18:25h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23
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As the sun slowly dips below the skyline, a palpable tension hangs heavy in the air. The much-anticipated release of the revised draft text has yet to materialize, leaving delegates and observers in a state of anxious anticipation.
Meanwhile, outside the official conference halls, a different kind of energy is brewing. Youth activists and civil society groups, their chants and banners fluttering like defiant butterflies, echo the growing impatience with the glacial pace of progress. "End The Fossil Era!" they demand, their voices a rising chorus of dissent against the very industries whose shadow hangs over the possibility of real change.

“When Will COP 28 End?”

Updated 17:30h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23
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As Tuesday afternoon stretches on at COP 28, the question of when the conference will finally conclude hangs heavy in the air. With the clock past 5pm and the deadline set by COP President Sultan Al-Jaber for ”by the latest” 11am Tuesday already crossed, the anticipation for a final agreement is palpable. Analysts point to the history of previous COPs, where negotiations often extended for a day or two beyond the scheduled closing date.
The next step is the release of the revised draft text, which is expected in less than 30 minutes. This document will be the basis for the final stretch of negotiations, and its contents will offer clues as to the remaining sticking points and the potential for compromise.

UK's Most Senior Diplomat At COP 28 Departs As Talks Hit Iceberg

Updated 15:47h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23

In a move that has raised eyebrows among delegates and activists, the UK's Minister of State for Climate Change, Graham Stuart, has departed COP 28 mid-way through last stretch of negotiations. The UK Government confirmed Stuart's return to London to attend Parliament, emphasizing continued official representation in the negotiation table. However, the timing of his departure, coinciding with the negotiations reaching a critical point, has sparked concerns and questions. The government claims he will return once the vote on the Rwanda Bill in Parliament is completed.
Stuart's departure adds to the existing concerns regarding the UK's commitment to ambitious climate action. The country's advocacy for a complete phase-out of fossil fuels during talks last night has been challenged by its own plans for new North Sea oil and gas licenses. Additionally, the brief appearances by Prime Minister Rishi Sunak and Energy Secretary Claire Coutinho at the beginning of the COP have further fueled criticism of the UK's seemingly lukewarm engagement. With Stuart's absence, the UK delegation is now led by civil servants, raising questions about the country's ability to exert its desired influence in the remaining negotiation sessions.
As for the negotiations, there is no end in sight, countries remain divided on the issue of phasing out or down fossil fuels. The UAE presidency is expected to release a revised draft in the coming hours, and it remains to be seen whether it will address the concerns raised.

Activists Demand Stronger Language In Stocktake

Updated 14:50h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23
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Climate activists are demanding stronger language on fossil fuels in the critical global stocktake text. Outside the conference halls, they held banners proclaiming, "Right to a healthy environment now!" Sebastian Duyck, from the Centre for International Environmental Law, gave voice to their concerns
“We really hope that the text is changed and that some key red lines that are so important for civil society will be strengthened....the four red lines we were here to stress is the importance of fossil fuel phase-out - that would send a strong political signal...”

COP 28 Presidency Seeks “Fossil Fuel Inclusion”In Final Text, New Draft Delayed Until Tonight

Updated 13:10h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23

During a press conference this afternoon, COP 28 Director-General Majid Al Suwaidi framed the presidency's aim as “including fossil fuels in the text,” without mention of phasing them out. He acknowledged “deeply divided views, especially on fossil fuels,” and said the presidency has spent hours in talks and will release a new text incorporating these diverse perspectives.
Al Suwaidi emphasized that the final document will reflect the ambition of governments, not just the presidency. He announced a new text will be released for further input, clarifying that it's not a ”take it or leave it” offer. He acknowledged the ambiguity in the current draft, which uses "could" to preface many potential actions. He indicated the new text will be analyzed “in the round,” but didn't directly address whether the use of the term "could" will be retained.
“...most demanding COP agenda of all time...All COPS are challenging, but in this COP we are trying to do something that hasn't been done before, something historic...We are trying to agree a comprehensive plan to close the gaps between where the world is and where it needs to be to keep 1.5°C degrees within reach...Part of this is to include language on fossil fuels in the text. If we can, that would be historic...We've known for a long time that the language around fossil fuels are complicated and the views around it as complicated...And it's important that we have the right language when it comes to fossil fuels, it's important how we get that balance...We've said as a presidency we think fossil fuel language needs to be part of that. Now we need the parties to say how do we land [it]...”

“...We expected that. In fact, we wanted the text to spark conversations. And that’s what’s happened. What we have seen since is that the parties have deeply held and deeply split views, especially on the language around fossil fuels. It’s important to be clear on something, the text we released was the starting point for discussions. Again, this is entirely normal for a consensus based process....When we released it, we knew opinions were polarised. But what we didn’t know was where each country’s red lines were. By releasing our first draft of the text, we got parties to come to us quickly with those red lines. We spent last night talking taking in that feedback. And that has put us in a position to draft a new text. The text includes all the elements we need for a comprehensive plan to 2030… but this is a process of the parties… and while the presidency can guide, direct and encourage the level of ambition is for the parties to agree.”
The COP Presidency also announced that the new draft text will be out no earlier than 18:00h GST. Behind the scenes, the COP 28 Presidency has sent emails to the chairs and coordinators in the negotiating process.
“The COP 28 Presidency is grateful for the inputs and actions we are receiving across the full package of decisions.

Thank you for the trust you continue to have in the Presidency in seeing this through and the engagement last night from ministers and Heads of Delegation. As indicated the Presidency is revisiting texts on all outstanding issues, considering all inputs on structure as well substantive elements.

Consultations on all outstanding issues will continue throughout the day, which we will then reflect in proposed texts. We would appreciate if you can make yourself available for Group and Party consultations in the Blue Zone. We will inform Parties and Groups on the time and room for consultations.

Our objective is to ensure that Groups and Parties have a full package of decisions to consider later today, but this will be no earlier than 6 pm. We will update you further on the process by 6 pm.”

Africa Pushes Back On Fossil Fuel Phase-Out, Demands Finance For Adaptation

Updated 11:30h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23
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In a press conference few minutes ago, the Africa Group voiced strong opposition to calls for fossil fuel phase-out and concerns over the lack of financial support for adaptation.
“Asking Nigeria to phase out fossil fuels - or indeed Africa to phase out fossil fuels - is asking us to stop breathing without life support. It's not acceptable,” the Nigerian Minister of State for Environment, Ishak Salako, stated during the African Group of negotiators press briefing, highlighting the continent's dependence on fossil fuels for development and energy security.
Chair of the African Negotiators Group, Zambia's Environment Minister Collins Nzovu compared a goal to adapt to climate change without finance to a “bike without tyres,” emphasizing the need for concrete financial commitments to support vulnerable nations in building resilience against climate impacts. He further emphasized the “importance of oil and gas” in driving Africa's development, highlighting the crucial role these resources play in building infrastructure, generating jobs, and fostering economic growth.
Many African countries argue that a “just transition” must be prioritized, ensuring that their “development needs” are not compromised in the pursuit of emissions reductions. The issue of financial support is also a major sticking point, with African nations calling for developed countries to fulfill their pledges of providing $100 billion annually for climate action in developing countries.

Cracks Emerge As Kerry And Al Jaber Hold Private Talks

Updated 10:25h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23
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Tensions flared late last night at the Head of Delegation (HoD) meeting, casting a shadow over today's crucial negotiations. In a move that raised eyebrows, US Climate Envoy John Kerry and COP 28 President Sultan Al Jaber entered the room together and exited just as abruptly, leaving the session still ongoing.
This private tête-à-tête, bypassing the broader discussion, turned heads in the negotiating halls. The BASIC group, representing major developing nations, quickly departed for their own HoD-level meeting.
The air is thick with suspicion this morning, with accusations of backroom deals and preferential treatment hanging heavy. The question on everyone's lips is: Did Kerry and Al Jaber reach a secret agreement? Or was it simply a strategic maneuver to break a deadlock?
Whatever the case, the fault lines are now clearly drawn. Today's negotiations promise to be tense, with the EU, the G77 and the BASIC group likely to push back against any perceived attempts to undermine their interests.

“Menu Of Dead Rats”

Updated 09:30h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23
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Activists are up and about, distributing their daily newsletter. In today's edition of ECO, the civil society newsletter published daily by Climate Action Network, a global network of more than 1,900 civil society organisations in over 130 countries. They've labeled the current text a "menu of dead rats," a grim metaphor for the lack of progress and unpalatable options being offered.

Good Morning!

Updated 08:00h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23

Negotiators burned the midnight oil exchanging views on the draft text. Many voiced strong opposition to the insufficient emissions reduction targets, while others criticized the lack of financial support from wealthier nations to aid poorer countries in achieving those goals and adapting to climate change. With the current iteration falling short, the COP 28 Presidency has gone back to the drawing board and plans to release a revised text later today.

Frustrations Rise, Deal Rewrites Loom As Clock Ticks Down

Updated 02:58h GST/UTC+4 - 12/12/23

The clock is ticking, and tempers are flaring. Governments are giving their feedback on the draft deal presented by the UAE COP 28 presidency, and the mood is far from conciliatory. Many, including the EU, UK, the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), and the Least Developed Countries Group (LDC), are expressing strong dissatisfaction.
The presidency is likely to rewrite the deal in response to these criticisms, a process that could take hours. This throws a wrench into the already tight schedule. The prospect of a last-minute scramble to reach an agreement is raising anxieties and casting doubt on whether COP 28 will deliver the concrete action needed to address the climate crisis.

“We Have Time And We Are Prepared To Stay A Little Longer”

Updated 23:35 GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

In a move that could extend talks, the European Union has declared its willingness to stay longer and fight for a stronger deal. German Foreign Minister Annalena Baerbock made the statement clear: “This is not a problem for the European delegation. We have time and we are prepared to stay a little longer.”
The EU's stance stems from deep dissatisfaction with the current draft agreement. They argue that the proposed text dangerously downplays the urgency of replacing fossil fuels, sending a misleading signal to businesses and markets. As Baerbock stated, “The need to replace fossil fuels is completely missing. The current text on fossil fuels misleads the world. It suggest that fossiles can continue to play an essential role in our future. This is a misleading signal to our businesses & our markets.”
The EU's position throws down the gauntlet to other nations. It signals that they are prepared to walk away from a weak deal, even if it means extending the talks. This could put immense pressure on other countries, particularly those with vested interests in the fossil fuel industry, to come to the table with more ambitious proposals. Whether the EU's gambit will pay off remains to be seen. The coming hours will be crucial in determining whether COP 28 can deliver a deal that truly meets the moment.

UK Joins Chorus Of Discontent Over Draft Text

Updated 23:05 GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

The UK has joined a chorus of nations, including the EU, US, and small island states, expressing disappointment with the draft agreement text. A government spokesperson called the text “disappointing” and stated that it “does not go far enough” to meet global climate goals.
Signals from the negotiations suggest that the UK remains adamant about phasing out ”unabated” fossil fuels, a stance echoed by its partners. Minister Graham Stuart and lead negotiator Alison Campbell are currently attending the Head of Delegation Meeting with the COP presidency.

High Ambition Coalition Meets To Discuss Latest Texts

Updated 22:10h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23
EU Climate Action
EU Climate Action

The High Ambition Coalition (HAC), an alliance of the “world's most climate ambitious nations,” is meeting to discuss the latest draft texts. Chaired by the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the HAC is a leading voice pushing for ambitious action on climate change.
The meeting comes at a critical time, as negotiators work to finalize a series of key decisions, including the Global Stocktake and the Global Goal on Adaptation. The HAC's meeting will be closely watched by observers, as it will provide an indication of the level of support for the latest texts. Also, the HAC has a strong track record of achieving progress on climate negotiations.
“We need to keep a 1.5 degree figure alive. It is what science demands and our kids deserve...”
- Wopke Hoekstra, EU's Climate Commissioner

Activists Hold Vigil As Talks Drag On

Updated 21:20h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23
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As negotiations continue late into the night, activists have lined the path to the negotiating rooms, holding vigils and raising their voices to demand urgent action on climate change. The mood outside the negotiating rooms is a mixture of hope and frustration.
Activists are determined to hold their leaders accountable and ensure that the decisions made at COP 28 are meaningful and ambitious. The activists represent a diverse range of groups, from environmental organizations to indigenous communities. They are united in their call for our leaders to “Hold The Line” and push for a global phaseout of fossil fuels.

Host For Next COPs Confirmed, But Big Divides Remain Unresolved

Updated 21:00h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

During the Presidency Formal Plenary, the long-awaited confirmation was made: COP 29 will take place in Azerbaijan from 11-22 November 2024 and COP 30 will be hosted by Brazil from 10-21 November 2025. While Azerbaijan's Minister Mukhtar Babayev highlighted his country's “rich cultural heritage and dynamic energy,” Brazil's environment minister Marina Silva acknowledged potential challenges in securing sufficient finance and means of implementation for ambitious emissions reduction goals.
Despite progress on some low-profile agenda items, deep divides remain on key issues like fossil fuel phase-out, adaptation to climate change, and financial responsibility. Al Jaber's announcement of a six-month delay on the adaptation committee agenda item further underscored the lack of agreement. Many expected an update from the Presidency on outstanding matters, particularly the Global Stocktake and Global Goal on Adaptation. However, no dedicated plenary for stocktaking materialized. This lack of progress on crucial issues raises concerns about the effectiveness of the current negotiations.
Despite the challenges, some decisions were forwarded by the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies. Additionally, Heads of Delegation are expected to meet later tonight, potentially offering an opportunity for further dialogue and progress. Whether the remaining divisions can be overcome in time remains to be seen. However, the confirmed locations and upcoming meetings provide some hope.

EU Leaders Find COP 28 Draft Text “Unacceptable,” Demand More Stringent Action

Updated 19:53h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23
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The EU's Climate Commissioner Wopke Hoekstra and Spanish Environment Minister Teresa Ribera have expressed strong reservations about the draft text released at COP28, calling several elements “unacceptable.” Both leaders emphasized that this is a long way from the final agreement, with Ribera stating that her flight back to Madrid is not booked until Friday.
Hoekstra echoed this sentiment, saying the current text falls far short of expectations.
“We think there are elements in the text that are fully unacceptable...We want to have 1.5C being the safe space. We are going to fight for 1.5C. The current text provides some reference to the science, some reference to 1.5C, but it is not consistent with dealing with energy. We need to get into deeper discussions with many other partners, and of course with the president...I cannot hide the fact from you that as it stands, the text is disappointing. It is lengthy, we are still looking into all of the various elements. Yes, there are a couple of good things in there...”

Marshall Islands Rejects COP 28 Draft: ”We Will Not Sign Our Death Warrant”

Updated 19:05h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

The Marshall Islands delivered a strong rebuke to the draft text, calling it unacceptable and tantamount to signing their “death warrant” in the face of climate change.
John Silk, the Marshall Islands' head of delegation, emphasized the urgency of phasing out fossil fuels, stating that it is the only way to achieve the 1.5°C global warming target set by the Paris Agreement. He condemned the draft for failing to address this critical issue adequately.
“The Republic of the Marshall Islands did not come here to sign our death warrant. We came here to fight for 1.5 and for the only way to achieve that: a fossil fuel phase out. What we have seen today is unacceptable. We will not go silently to our watery graves. We will not accept an outcome that will lead to devastation for our country, and for millions if not billions of the most vulnerable people and communities.”

Small Island States Criticize Draft Text, Urge Fossil Fuel Phaseout

Updated 18:50h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23
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The Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) has expressed strong disapproval of the draft text released at the ongoing COP28 climate summit. Representatives of the 39-member bloc displayed visible frustration at a media scrum, calling the document inadequate in addressing the urgency of the climate crisis.
Samoa's Minister of Natural Resources and Environment, Toeolesulusulu Cedric Schuster, voiced particular concern, stating that the text fails to uphold the crucial goal of limiting global warming to 1.5°C.
“We have been asked throughout this process, what is at stake if these negotiations don’t return a strong outcome that keeps 1.5C alive? How can you not understand it is our very survival that is at stake. This is why in every room our negotiators have been pushing tirelessly for decisions that align with staying under 1.5C of warming. That is why if parties continue to oppose the phase out of fossil fuels and fossil fuel subsidies they must stop and question their own commitment to this process...As big emitters continue to serve an antiquated industry which is responsible for over 90% of the current CO2 emissions, and rising, Aosis will be here. We will never stop fighting for a future where our people can not just survive, but thrive. Because as a result of the actions of big emitters, we have no other choice....we remind you yet again, our small island developing states are on the frontlines of this climate crisis, but if you continue prioritising profit over people you are putting your own future on the line. We call on all our allies to support our call and stand with us to keep 1.5C.”

COP 28 Draft Global Stocktake Lacks Action Verbs, Raising Concerns About Ambition

Updated 18:30h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23
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The newly released draft Global Stocktake text has generated concern due to its lack of action verbs. While the document acknowledges the urgency of climate action and recognizes existing efforts, it overwhelmingly favors passive verbs like "notes", "recognizes", and "invites". Stronger verbs like "calls on", which imply a demand for action, appear only sparingly.
This lack of clear calls to action has raised concerns about the overall ambition of the Global Stocktake. Critics argue that without specific directives urging immediate and concrete steps, the document will fall short of achieving meaningful progress in the fight against climate change.
The overuse of passive verbs suggests a reluctance to commit to bold action. Instead of clearly demanding that countries implement specific measures, the text often adopts a more tentative and ambiguous approach. This ambiguity leaves ample room for countries to avoid taking responsibility and continue with business as usual.
While some argue that this cautious approach is necessary to ensure consensus among diverse nations, others fear that it undermines the urgency and seriousness of the climate crisis. They believe that the time for polite requests and vague commitments has passed, and that the Global Stocktake needs to send a clear and unequivocal message demanding swift and decisive action.
“Instead of a historic commitment to phase out fossil fuels in line with science and equity, the latest GST draft put forward by the Presidency is a complete letdown, stuffed with qualifying language and technological distractions.

Parties must go back to the drawing board and produce a text that truly reckons with the moment we are in, during the hottest year ever with increasing devastating impacts on communities and ecosystems.”
- Caroline Brouillette, Executive Director, Climate Action Network Canada

New Draft Text Avoids "Phase-Out" Terminology

Updated 17:34h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23
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The long-awaited draft text from the presidency of COP 28, avoids explicitly using the term "phase-out" for fossil fuels, despite scientific advice calling for it. Instead, it mandates a reduction in fossil fuel production and consumption "by, before, around 2050." High-level sources say the presidency “successfully resisted pressure” to weaken the language further.
“The COP 28 Presidency has been clear from the beginning about our ambitions...This text reflects those ambitions and is a huge step forward. Now it is in the hands of the Parties, who we trust to do what is best for humanity and the planet..”

After Lengthy Wait, Draft Global Stocktake Text Published

Updated 17:15h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23
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Following a period of intense anticipation, the Global Stocktake draft negotiating text by the COP Presidency has finally been published. This document represents the culmination of discussions at COP 28, encompassing diverse areas of climate action, including fossil fuel phaseout.
The release of the text opens a new chapter in the COP 28 proceedings. Scheduled for 18:00h GST today, a dedicated plenary session will commence, allowing nations to delve into the document's details and engage in critical analysis.The road ahead is undoubtedly complex.

'People's Plenary' Demands Ceasefire In Gaza And Addresses Climate Justice

Updated 17:03h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

Amidst ongoing turmoil in the official negotiations at COP 28, the 'People's Plenary,' an annual gathering of observer organizations, hosted passionate discussions on critical topics including Indigenous Peoples' rights, the role of workers in just transitions, and the interconnectedness of climate change and conflict.
One particularly impactful moment came when hundreds attending the session rose in unison, demanding a ceasefire in the ongoing conflict in Gaza. This powerful act of solidarity resonated throughout the Plenary and highlighted the urgency of addressing both climate and human rights issues simultaneously.
Activists from diverse backgrounds, further amplified the call for peace through chants and raised fists. This wasn't the first demonstration calling for an end to the war in Gaza, a large march took place through Expo City Dubai on Saturday.

Beyond Oil And Gas Alliance Press Conference Calls For Action On Fossil Fuels

Updated 16:30h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23
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After a statement calling for global phase out of fossil fuels, the Beyond Oil & Gas Alliance (BOGA), led by Danish climate minister Dan Jørgensen, held a press conference to discuss the issue and urge action.
Jørgensen emphasized the need for a conscious political decision to end the fossil fuel era, regardless of available resources. He expressed optimism that COP 28 could be the turning point, allowing the world to stay below the critical 1.5°C warming threshold.
“...The stone age didn’t end because the world ran out of stone. Likewise, the fossil era won’t end because we don’t have oil, gas and coal left. It will only end if we make a conscious political decision. The good news is we have the alternatives. Hopefully at this Cop, we will also be able to make the political decision to make this real so we can stay below 1.5C...”
French minister for the energy transition, Agnès Pannier-Runacher, echoed this sentiment, calling for ambitious and clear language on the fossil fuel phase-out in the final text.
“...The momentum has come to act and agree on an ambitious and clear language on fossil fuels ... COP28 should be the COP where countries agree on ambitious language on phasing out fossil fuels to keep 1.5C alive....”
Colombian environment minister Susana Muhamad recognized the need for a just and orderly transition, noting the dependence of economies and societies on fossil fuels. She stressed the importance of strong financial reforms to ensure a smooth transition and alignment with the climate crisis.
“This is not a transition that will happen from one day to the other. Whole economies and societies are depending on fossil fuels and capital. This will require a just phase-out and an orderly transition ... We could choose the path to keeping 1.5C alive and an orderly economic transition. For this, we are calling as BOGA that this needs strong financial reforms. It will not happen on its own. We need to align the economic and financial systems to the reality of the financial crisis.”

10+ Countries Call For Global Fossil Fuel Phase Out

Updated 15:30h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

The Beyond Oil and Gas Alliance (BOGA) has just issued a strong statement urging all parties at COP 28 to join them in calling for a global phase out of all fossil fuels. The statement, signed by ministers from over 10 countries including Colombia, Denmark, Fiji, Finland, France, Greenland, Ireland, the Marshall Islands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Tuvalu highlights the escalating impacts of climate change and the need for urgent action to address the root cause of the crisis, dependence on fossil fuels.
The BOGA statement acknowledges the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which state that under every 1.5°C scenario, there is a rapid decline in oil and gas production and consumption. The International Energy Agency's Net Zero Scenario further supports this, demonstrating that the rapid growth of renewables is currently keeping the door to 1.5°C open. However, the statement warns that without an orderly and just phase out of all fossil fuel production and consumption, this door will close.
The statement calls for several key actions, including:
  • A global phase out of all fossil fuels in line with IPCC pathways to achieve net zero CO2 no later than 2050 and limit global average temperatures to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
  • A peak in fossil fuel production and consumption this decade, leading to peak emissions by 2025.
  • The phase out of fossil fuel subsidies as soon as possible.
  • The halting of fossil fuel finance.
  • Enhanced planning and support for just transitions from oil and gas.
  • Strong financial system reform and the deployment of innovative, effective, and accessible financing to support vulnerable and developing economies in their transitions.
The statement acknowledges that the fossil fuel sector will not unwind itself and that an orderly, just transition aligned with 1.5°C is necessary. It calls for producers, consumers, and the multilateral system to work together to avoid price volatility and support investment in the transition, particularly for the most exposed economies and communities.
While the statement acknowledges the challenges involved in phasing out fossil fuels, it ultimately argues that agreement on this goal is the first step towards true climate, energy, and economic security. It urges all parties at COP 28 to join BOGA in calling for this critical action.

'Sustaina Claus' Calls On Parents And Children To Be Changemakers

Updated 14:50h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23
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Philip McMaster, better known as 'Sustaina Claus,' sporting a red Santa hat and robe, has been engaging with parents and children, urging them to "be the change" in their communities. McMaster, a veteran of eight climate COPs, believes that parents are key to fostering environmental awareness in the next generation.
His message to parents is clear: choose eco-friendly gifts for children, reduce waste, reuse and recycle, and take up green initiatives in their neighborhoods. According to McMaster, these ”small things” can collectively make a significant impact.
“I want to engage parents, because through them I can reach the children...We as civil society will have to deliver....We can live a life of health, sustainability and happiness – that’s what Sustaina Claus represents....We need to do the small things - take on small projects and care for the environment in which you live, around your home, your school...”

Nauru Joins Call For Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty

Updated 13:38h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

Nauru, a small island nation in the Pacific Ocean, has become the 12th nation-state to officially endorse the call for a Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Nauru's Secretary for Climate Change and National Resilience, Mr. Reagan Moses, made the announcement during his National Statement at a High Level Plenary of COP 28.
“Our marine port is our island’s lifeline, without which we would be almost entirely cut off from food, medicine, and almost all other necessities. This is not hypothetical, as even today, storms can cut us off from shipments many weeks at a time...we are ready to do our part in making the Pacific a fossil fuel-free zone. In this regard, Nauru would like to use this opportunity to join others in calling for a treaty to phase out fossil fuel production...”

Guterres Urges For Maximum Ambition And Flexibility In Last Stretch Of Negotiations

Updated 13:10h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

In a press conference a few minutes ago, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres emphasized the urgency of action as COP 28 enters its final stretch. He warned that the world is “minutes to midnight” in terms of limiting global temperature rise to 1.5°C, the central goal of the Paris Agreement.
Guterres stressed that the global stocktake, a key outcome of COP 28, must provide a clear path towards phasing out fossil fuels in a manner that aligns with the 1.5°C limit.
He urged ministers and negotiators to move beyond entrenched positions and engage in good faith negotiations. He highlighted the need for compromise and solutions that do not compromise on science or the highest ambition. According to Guterres, COP 28 can serve as a testament to the enduring power of multilateralism in addressing global challenges.
Beyond ambition in emissions reduction, Guterres emphasized the importance of delivering climate justice. He called for the global stocktake to provide a clear pathway towards tripling renewable energy and doubling energy efficiency. Achieving these goals, he argued, demands a single-minded focus on tackling the root cause of climate change: fossil fuel production and consumption.
Emphasizing the need for a just transition, Guterres acknowledged the specific challenges faced by developing nations heavily reliant on fossil fuels. He stressed the importance of addressing these needs while pursuing a global phase-out of fossil fuels aligned with the 1.5°C limit.
“...It’s time to negotiate in good faith and rise to the challenge set by COP President Sultan Al Jaber. It’s time to find a compromise for solutions without compromising on science or compromising on the need for the highest ambition....COP 28 can show that multilateralism remains our best hope to tackle global challenges...It is essential that the Global Stocktake recognises the need to phase out all fossil fuels on a timeframe consistent with the 1.5 degree limit – and to accelerate a just, equitable and orderly energy transition for all...A transition that takes into account the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and reflective capabilities, in light of national circumstances – not to reduce ambition but to combine ambition and equity....”

Tense Anticipation As Everyone Awaits New Draft Text

Updated 12:55h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

A hush has fallen over the conference center as everyone awaits the release of the latest draft text. With rumors swirling about the fate of fossil fuel language in the new text, this moment is widely seen as a turning point for COP 28.
Earlier this morning, COP 28 president Sultan Al Jaber surprised many by calling an unscheduled press conference for 10:30h GST/UTC+4. However, just minutes later, the press conference was abruptly canceled, leaving the everyone gathered outside with more questions than answers.
The sudden quietude of the conference center this morning stands in stark contrast to the bustling atmosphere of previous days. Late-night negotiations have undoubtedly taken their toll on delegates, and with virtually no side events scheduled in the blue zone except the “People’s Plenary.”
The contents of the new draft text remain shrouded in secrecy, but speculation is rife. Will it include the ambitious emissions reductions targets that many countries have demanded? Or will it cave to pressure from fossil fuel interests and water down the language on climate action?

“Significant Work To Do” - Singapore's Environment Minister

Updated 11:59h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

In a press gaggle, Singapore's Environment Minister Grace Fu stated that while negotiations at COP28 have made some progress, there remains “significant work to do” before COP 28 concludes tomorrow.
Fu, one of the ministerial pairs facilitating the negotiations alongside the Cop presidency, acknowledged that “gaps” exist and emphasized the need for further effort as the summit enters its final hours. Her specific focus lies on the critical issue of mitigation, or reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
“We have narrowed down crucial issues, but there are some gaps and significant work to do...We are at the crucial moments of the negotiations..”
Despite the remaining challenges, the COP28 Presidency insists that this COP will conclude on schedule by 11am tomorrow.
Regarding the contentious issue of phasing out or down fossil fuels, Ms. Fu remained non-committal, stating that “maybe some of these words will feature” in the final agreement. However, she emphasized the importance of a successful energy transition, regardless of the specific wording used.

Stiell Calls For “Highest Levels of Ambition” As Talks Enter “Crucial Home Stretch”

Updated 11:40h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

In a press conference this morning, UNFCCC Executive Secretary Simon Stiell urged nations to seize the opportunity at COP'28 and reach a deal reflecting “the highest levels of ambition” on tackling climate change. The starkness of the situation was evident in his words, as he warned that “countless millions of lives” could be lost without immediate and decisive action.
Stiell stressed that the climate talks are now entering a “crucial home stretch,” with everything on the table as negotiators strive to secure a meaningful agreement. He acknowledged the challenges ahead, calling for a collective effort to overcome “unnecessary tactical blockades" that have hampered progress in the past.
“How do we get from here a meaningful deal?...First, clear the unnecessary tactical blockades out of the way and there have been many on this journey...”

COP 28 Enters Crucial Phase As Negotiators Tackle Fossil Fuel Issue

Updated 11:25h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

With time running out, delegates face their most challenging issue yet today: whether to call for a phase-out of fossil fuels. Today marks a critical juncture in the negotiations, with the COP 28 Presidency expected to release a new draft text for a final deal. This document will serve as the basis for intense discussions, with countries divided over the inclusion of language specifically targeting fossil fuels.
One camp, led by those advocating for rapid climate action, insists on clear language calling for the phase-out of oil and gas. This group views such a move as essential to meeting global climate goals and transitioning to clean energy sources.
However, others, including major oil-producing nations like Saudi Arabia and Iraq, oppose any direct mention of fossil fuels. They argue that the focus should be on reducing emissions rather than singling out specific industries, and that any attempt to limit fossil fuels would have severe economic consequences for their countries.
With tensions running high and time pressure mounting, the talks are expected to continue late into the night. The stakes are high, as a successful agreement would mark a significant step towards addressing the global climate crisis. However, failure to reach a consensus could leave the world without a clear roadmap for moving forward.

A Quick Recap Of Yesterday

Updated 11:15h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

Yesterday, a sense of anxiety hung heavy in the air. Delegates faced a light schedule, filled with anticipation and the fear of missing out on crucial developments. By noon, only two issues had progressed to informal consultations: response measures and the Santiago Network on loss and damage.
On the Santiago Network, discussions were successful, paving the way for the establishment of its secretariat. This marks a significant step in addressing loss and damage, a key concern for developing nations. Meanwhile, negotiators on response measures delved into the draft text, offering detailed comments that suggest a move towards a more fruitful dialogue.
Finance negotiations also made progress, with informal informal sessions churning out draft decisions. While these discussions remain opaque, they indicate potential advancements on key financial issues.
Beyond scheduled sessions, negotiations continued at a higher level. Heads of delegation reviewed revised text on the Global Goal on Adaptation, acknowledging its need for improvement but also recognizing it as a valuable foundation for further discussions.
The day's highlight was the COP Presidency's "Majlis," which brought ministers together in a unique setting. Although concrete proposals were scarce, the event saw positive gestures, with countries acknowledging the varying pace of emissions reduction and the need for support for developing nations transitioning away from fossil fuels.
The ministerial discussions at the "Majlis" offered some hope for an ambitious agreement, potentially including a reference to fossil fuels. The presidency reiterated its intention to conclude on time, urging all parties to approach negotiations with flexibility and prioritize the global good.

Good Morning!

Updated 11:00h GST/UTC+4 - 11/12/23

Welcome back to our live coverage! As COP 28 enters its final 24 hours, we're bringing you all the crucial updates and insights you need.
  • Chris Ndungu

    7 w

    Nations will gather allot of information out of this discussions. Thanks for updating!

    • Patrick Kiash

      17 w

      Great work! Very commendable thanks for letting us be updated in time with all this huge and important information of all that was going on in ground.

      • emeliasanford

        17 w

        What nostalgia and pleasure to see that!

        • Christina Carlmark

          17 w

          Thanks for an amazing update!


            17 w

            Any update on adaptation and upscaling of Nature Based Solutions?

            • Oscar Ivarsson

              17 w

              It is not about phase out companies and countries. Let us phase out fossil fuels and help each other with the transition. Instead of be mad and blame, reach out a helping hand. 🤝 Hope COP28 will be a successful story.

              • Mdshahab Uddin

                17 w

                Stand up for better future is the human rights.

                • DIPANJANA MAULIK

                  17 w

                  Gratitude for excellent updates

                  • Munene Mugambi

                    17 w

                    We've been very privileged to have you cover this #COP. One could miss a day and would find all about that day here. Thank you

                    • Sarah Chabane

                      17 w

                      Thanks for keeping us updated on the last hours of COP!

                      • George Kariuki

                        17 w

                        Being listening in and it has been very informative.

                        • Kevin

                          17 w

                          The live blogs have been very intense and captivating. We are the solution to the climate crisis

                          • Clement Spanoh

                            17 w

                            Out of this conversation the future is gonna be determined let's tune in

                            • Princess

                              17 w

                              Let's follow the discussions shaping our planet's future!

                              • Jane Wangui

                                17 w

                                @princess_nel_268 sharing ideas might just ensure the safety of our future.

                              Welcome, let's solve the climate crisis together
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