COP 28 Live Blog - 30th November

(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)

Welcome to our live blog of the 28th Conference of the Parties (COP 28) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), taking place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Over the next two weeks, world leaders, policymakers, activists, and experts will gather to discuss and negotiate critical issues related to climate change, biodiversity, and sustainability. The stakes are high, as the world faces a climate crisis that demands urgent and transformative action.
We will be bringing you real-time updates, insights, and exclusive behind-the-scenes glimpses of the event, providing a comprehensive overview of the discussions, decisions, and outcomes of COP 28.

Next: 1st December

Hosted by WeDontHaveTime and Lostisland

And That's A Wrap!

Updated 23:00h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)

The first day of COP 28 in Dubai was marked by a significant breakthrough on the issue of loss and damage, as countries reached an agreement to establish a fund to help developing nations cope with the impacts of climate change. This long-awaited development was met with cautious optimism from vulnerable nations, who have been calling for financial support to address the escalating costs of climate disasters.
In a symbolic gesture, the UAE, this year's COP28 host, pledged an initial $100 million to the loss and damage fund. This was followed by contributions from the EU, Germany, the UK, the US, and Japan. However, the US's relatively modest pledge drew criticism from some quarters, who argued that it fell short of the country's responsibility as a major historical emitter of greenhouse gases.
  • UAE: US$ 100 million
  • Germany: US$ 100 million
  • UK: GBP 60 million
  • Japan: US$ 10 million
  • US: US$ 17.5 million
  • EU (inc Germany): at least EUR 225 million
  • “Norway and other countries hinted at further pledges to come.” - IISD
Amidst the progress on loss and damage, the issue of coal remained a contentious one. A representative of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi stated that coal would continue to play a significant role in India's energy mix, a position that is at odds with the urgent need to phase out fossil fuels to avert catastrophic climate change.
During the joint opening plenary of COP 28, CMP 18, CMA 5, SBSTA 59 and SBI 59, the representatives of parties, observers and stakeholders made statements which offered valuable insights. As COP28 enters its second day, world leaders will take center stage, delivering their speeches and outlining their respective countries' climate commitments. The focus will be on whether nations can agree on a bold and ambitious plan to reduce emissions and avert the worst impacts of climate change.

Joint Opening Plenary Of COP 28, CMP 18, CMA 5, SBSTA 59, And SBI 59

Updated 21:15h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)

The joint opening plenary of COP 28, CMP 18, CMA 5, SBSTA 59 and SBI 59 is currently underway to take up statements. This is a crucial juncture for the start of the COP 28 process, as it provides parties, observers and stakeholders with an opportunity to articulate their perspectives on the pertinent issues. We will hear from a diverse range of delegates, including government and civil society representatives. Their statements will offer valuable insights into the current state of climate negotiations and the potential for progress at COP 28.

Tibits From The COP 28 Press Conference

Updated 19:30h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
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At the COP 28 Press Conference, UNFCCC Executive Secretary Simon Stiell commended the parties for reaching a loss and damage funding agreement earlier in the day, hailing it as a “culmination of 30 years of discussions.” He also extended his gratitude to COP 27 hosts Egypt for their efforts over the past year.
Stiell clarified that nations had meticulously crafted the fund's operational framework over the past year. He emphasized that “today's announcement provides the COP 28 climate summit with a running start,” adding that “we must maintain our focus on the goal, and every second counts.” Stiell acknowledged the challenging road ahead but expressed optimism about the spirit of constructive engagement that had characterized party engagements. He encouraged delegates to “build upon the progress made today as we navigate the days that lie ahead.”
COP 28 President, Dr. Al Jaber highlighted the “unconventional” approach taken by the presidency, driven by a thorough understanding of the demands of the task and a profound sense of responsibility and urgency. Al Jaber underscored the “unprecedented” milestones achieved on the first day of COP 28, including the swift approval of the agenda and the operationalization of the loss and damage fund. He deemed these achievements “historic” and “groundbreaking.”
Al Jaber reaffirmed the presidency's commitment to keeping the Paris Agreement target of limiting emissions to 1.5°C above preindustrial levels within reach. He emphasized that “now, the real work commences.” Al Jaber revealed that the loss and damage fund had received pledges of $420 million in the first few hours of its existence. He singled out Germany, the UK, the EU, the US, and Japan for their commitments.
Al Jaber expressed his gratitude to the delegates for their presence and pledged to collaborate “hand in hand with everyone” to achieve “tangible action and outcomes.”
Majid al-Suwaidi, the COP 28 Director-General, reiterated the UAE's commitment to hosting an inclusive and productive conference. He asserted, “We will ensure that this COP is completely inclusive, bringing together all voices and perspectives to achieve a meaningful outcome.”
Hana Alhashimi, the UAE's Chief Climate Negotiator, highlighted the diversity of the UAE's negotiating team, emphasizing that two-thirds of the team are female and two-thirds are youth, representing a range of backgrounds.
She expressed gratitude to everyone involved for getting the agenda approved, which included over 160 items. This approval ensured that negotiations could begin in a timely fashion, allaying fears that a lack of agreement on the agenda could hinder and delay negotiations.

Joint Opening Plenary Of SBSTA 59 and SBI 59

Updated 18:30h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
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Due to time constraints, the opening plenary of the 59th session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 59) and the 59th session of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 59) are currently being held jointly.
The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) is one of two permanent subsidiary bodies to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP). It provides timely information and advice on scientific and technological matters as they relate to the Convention, its Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.
The Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) is the other permanent subsidiary body to the COP. It supports the work of the COP by providing a forum for discussion and negotiation on the implementation of the Convention, its Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.

Funding for Loss & Damage Gains Momentum

Updated 17:15h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Mark Field)
(UN Climate Change/Mark Field)

Several countries have stepped forward to announce significant contributions to the loss and damage fund, a critical mechanism to support developing nations facing the brunt of climate change impacts. Germany has pledged $100 million, joining the UK, which has committed $60 million, comprising $40 million for the fund and $20 million for funding arrangements.
The United States has also made a notable contribution of $17.5 million to the loss and damage fund, along with $4.5 million for the Pacific Resilience Facility, focused on supporting island nations in that region, and $2.5 million for the Santiago Network, which provides technical assistance to countries grappling with the effects of climate change.
Japan has further bolstered the funding pool with a $10 million pledge to the main loss and damage fund. These substantial commitments, totaling approximately $300 million, are expected to exert pressure on other wealthy nations to contribute to the fund, ensuring that vulnerable countries receive the necessary support to adapt to and recover from climate-induced losses and damages.

Loss and Damage Funding Arrangement Agreed

Updated 16:55h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Mahmoud Khaled)
(UN Climate Change/Mahmoud Khaled)

In a major breakthrough at COP28, countries have agreed on the operationalisation of the loss and damage fund to help poorer countries deal with the impacts of climate breakdown. The news was met with a standing ovation from delegates.
The creation of the fund has long been a stumbling block at climate talks, and the agreement on the first day of the conference has been tentatively welcomed by many delegates, although it will not be officially rubberstamped until the close of the conference.
The fund will provide finance for a range of activities, including early warning systems, climate-resilient infrastructure, and disaster preparedness. It is expected to be a lifeline for many developing countries that are already facing the worst impacts of climate change.
The agreement on the loss and damage fund is a significant step forward in the fight against climate change. It is a recognition that the impacts of climate change are already being felt around the world, and that wealthier countries have a responsibility to help those who are most vulnerable.
The fund is also a signal that countries are serious about addressing the issue of loss and damage. For too long, this issue has been neglected in climate negotiations. The agreement on the fund shows that there is now a global recognition that loss and damage is a real and pressing issue that must be addressed.
The operationalisation of the loss and damage fund is a complex task, and it will take time to get the fund up and running. However, the agreement reached at COP28 is a major step forward, and it gives hope to developing countries that are facing the worst impacts of climate change. The UAE, host of COP28, immediately demonstrated its commitment to the newly established fund by pledging $100 million.

Tense Exchange Between Russia And The U.S. During Plenary

Updated 16:20h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Mahmoud Khaled)
(UN Climate Change/Mahmoud Khaled)

During the routine opening session dedicated to procedural matters. A Russian delegate took the floor to object to the accreditation of two non-governmental organizations (NGOs): the Open Society Foundations, founded by George Soros, and the National Democratic Institute. The Russian delegate alleged that these organizations are “in fact governed and funded by the government of the United States” and that their inclusion “is intended to politicize the climate process and will do harm to negotiations.”
U.S. Special Climate Envoy John F. Kerry responded by emphasizing the importance of civil society participation in COP 28. He expressed concern about the unfounded accusations against the two NGOs and stated that if Russia's objections were to be recorded, the U.S. would demand that its response be included as well. Kerry's remarks were met with applause from the dais. The incident serves as a stark reminder of the challenges that lie ahead in addressing climate change, particularly in the face of geopolitical tensions and rivalries.

“Do, Or Do Not. There Is No Try”

Updated 15:45h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
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In his opening remarks, Simon Stiell, Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC, issued a powerful rallying cry for urgent climate action. He emphasized the alarming reality that extreme weather events and global warming are setting “terrifying records,” underscoring the dire need for decisive action.
“Do, or do not. There is no try,” Stiell said, channeling the words of the “wise Yoda” from the “Star Wars” saga. He urged delegates to recognize the gravity of the situation and rise to the challenge with unwavering determination.
Stiell's message was echoed by British scientist Jim Skea, who was recently elected head of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Skea acknowledged the “promising signs” in climate action, such as the declining cost of renewable energy and the adoption of green policies. However, he stressed that these efforts are not enough.
“The gap between the current trajectory and the Paris Agreement goals is still wide,” Skea cautioned. “We need to accelerate our efforts significantly if we are to avoid the worst impacts of climate change.”
The opening session of COP 28 set a somber yet determined tone for the conference. Delegates from around the world are under immense pressure to deliver concrete outcomes that will address the climate crisis.

“Coal Is, And Would, Remain An Important Part Of India’s Energy Needs”

Updated 15:15h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
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India's reliance on coal is likely to continue for the foreseeable future, despite growing international pressure to transition to cleaner energy sources. Vinay Mohan Kwatra, India's foreign secretary, stated to journalists that coal remains a vital component of India's energy mix, even as Prime Minister Narendra Modi prepares to attend COP28.
India's dependence on coal for electricity generation currently stands at around 75%. In recent years, the country has been rapidly expanding its coal-fired power generation capacity, adding 17 gigawatts to meet the surge in energy demand.
The climate talks in Dubai aim to secure a global agreement on phasing out fossil fuels, with coal being the most polluting and carbon-intensive option. However, India and China have both resisted efforts to curb the construction of new coal-fired power plants, according to Reuters.
According to the Foreign Minister, at COP28, India is seeking a clear roadmap for climate financing and has consistently advocated for a loss-and-damage fund to assist developing nations in recovering from the environmental consequences of industrial growth.

COP 27 Egypt Hands Over To COP 28 UAE

Updated 14:45h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
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In a symbolic gesture, Sultan Al Jaber, the COP 28 President has received the tiny hammer that marks the beginning of his presidency. With this handover, the presidency of COP 27 Egypt has officially concluded.
Al Jaber's opening remarks emphasized the need for collaboration and compromise among delegates, particularly when it comes to addressing the delicate balance between fossil fuel interests and the transition to renewable energy sources. Acknowledging the diverse perspectives on the issue, he urged delegates to find common ground and work together towards achieving climate goals.

COP 28 Kicks off With A Moment Of Silence

Updated 14:35h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
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COP 28 has been declared open by Sameh Shoukry, the outgoing president of the Conference of the Parties, President of COP 27. A moment of silence was held to remember Saleem Huq and Pete Betts who passed away away this year.
Pete Betts was the EU's chief negotiator when the Paris Agreement was signed. He has died a year after being diagnosed with cancer. Saleemul Huq was a Bangladeshi-British scientist and had been the Director of the International Centre for Climate Change & Development based in Bangladesh, also Professor at Independent University, Bangladesh. He was elected one of Nature's 10 top scientists in 2022.
Their contributions to the fight against climate change will be forever cherished and deeply respected.

Draft Decision On Loss And Damage Fund: “Does Not…Deliver Climate Justice”

Updated 13:35h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
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Last night, the COP28 presidency released the advance version of a “draft decision” on the Loss and Damage Fund and the funding arrangements. This is likely to pave the way for the adoption of the decision today, during the opening plenary. The proposed draft decision has been met with mixed reactions, while some view it as a step forward in addressing the needs of vulnerable countries, others are concerned that it falls short of delivering true climate justice.
We asked Liane Schalatek, the Associate Director of the Washington Office of the Heinrich Böll Stiftung, a German political party foundation working on sustainable development, human rights and gender democracy for her analysis. Here's what she had to say;
“The proposed draft decision, which is the compromise outcome from the Transitional Committee process, does not yet deliver climate justice. It is not fulfilling hopes and expectations and has left those of us who actively engaged in the process with some serious doubt that what seems to be ready to be agreed is really ‘fit-for-purpose’ to deliver climate justice to impacted local communities and often marginalized people in developing countries already suffering from catastrophic and compounding losses and damages. One main concern centers on the controversial placement of the LDF with a dedicated new Secretariat under the World Bank as a hosted Financial Intermediary Fund (FIF), at a minimum for an interim period of four years, but pending fulfillment of a set of conditions, potentially forever. And the failure of the process to secure a commitment by developed countries to lead in capitalizing the new fund carries not only the risk that the LDF remains an empty shell, but has also serious repercussions for ongoing climate finance negotiations under the Paris Agreement, including for a new climate finance goal post-2025, as it puts the obligation of developed countries as a matter of equity and historical responsibility to provide financial support to developing countries in doubt. We will see if the adoption of the text comes with significant pledges. To be clear: to be responsive to the scale of the needs and as a matter of climate justice hundreds of billions are necessary. Such funding must be as public grants complemented by innovative sources such as taxes on fossil fuel polluters and the wealthy and additional to financial support for adaptation which is also shortchanged.”

Opening Plenary Rescheduled Again

Updated 12:55h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)

The plenary of COP 28 has been rescheduled to 14:00h GST. The “ceremonial opening” plenary was originally scheduled for 10:00h GST, but was pushed back to 13:00h GST earlier today. This is the second time the plenary has been rescheduled.

“EU To Lobby For Tax On Aeroplane Fuel” - FT

Updated 12:35h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Mahmoud Khaled)
(UN Climate Change/Mahmoud Khaled)

According to the Financial Times, the European Union will push for an international tax on aeroplane fuel at COP28. Unlike other fuels, kerosene is not taxed worldwide. The EU's Climate Commissioner Wopke Hoekstra told journalist that China, Zambia, Brazil, and the “Gulf nations” have expressed interest in such a tax during pre-summit discussions.
The levy would generate "a significant amount of money" with a "relatively small charge" per flight. It also carries "an element of fairness" as aviation is primarily used by individuals from wealthier nations in Europe, North America, and elsewhere. Hoekstra has held over 60 meetings with climate diplomats since his appointment in October 2023, according to a document seen by the Financial Times.
Hoekstra stated that his goal at COP28 is "not just to gauge interest but also to discuss the 'why,' 'what,' and 'how' of an aviation levy." "We tax everything else, from what we eat to our work, and even when we die, but we don't tax aviation. That's simply unacceptable."
The EU has pledged to make a "substantial" contribution to a fund for loss and damage caused by global warming, which is slated to be established at COP28. Financing for climate change mitigation and adaptation is expected to be a central issue at COP28, as developing nations increasingly demand funding amid rising temperatures and sea levels.
The EU adopted a “polluter pays” principle as part of its negotiating position at COP28 last month, aiming to hold fossil fuel producers accountable for climate damage and facilitate the transition to renewable energy in developing countries. The final agreement at COP28 is anticipated to include a commitment to exploring various financing sources for climate action.

Guterres: Humanity Is On A Trajectory Towards “Total Disaster”

Updated 11:45h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UNFCCC - 2019)
(UNFCCC - 2019)

The United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has called for a total "phaseout" of fossil fuels at COP28. He warned that without a drastic shift away from fossil fuels, humanity is on a trajectory towards "total disaster". Guterres made the remarks in an interview with AFP on Wednesday, ahead of his departure for Dubai.
He said that he is "strongly in favor" of language in the COP28 final statement that includes a call for a fossil fuel phaseout, even with a "reasonable time framework". The UN chief acknowledged that countries "cannot stop tomorrow" but stressed that a "credible" time framework is needed to align with the goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
Guterres also called for a tripling of renewable energy production at the global level and said that a "massive" global investment program in Africa is needed. He also urged countries to make "meaningful contributions" to the fund that was created at COP27 to compensate for the losses and damages of countries that are especially vulnerable to climate change. The UN chief warned that if temperatures continue to rise, the world will face a "total disaster". He said that the 1.5 degree goal is still "alive" and that the world has the "potential, the technologies and the capacity and the money" to achieve it. However, he said that the only thing that is still lacking is "political will".
He also said that COP28 president Sultan Al Jaber, who is an Emirati official and CEO of the national oil company, has a "special responsibility" to influence the fossil fuel industry. He said Al Jaber was in a better position to tell the oil industry that the "solution of the climate problems requires the phase-out of fossil fuels" than "if he was member of NGO with a very solid pro-climate record."
"That will give him an opportunity to prove all those that accuse him wrong," said Guterres, who added the allegations against Jaber would be "inconceivable" to him.

Al-Jaber: “Do You Think The UAE Or Myself Will Need…COP Presidency To…Establish Business Deals?”

Updated 11:15h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)

During the pre-COP press conference yesterday, COP28 President Sultan al-Jaber addressed allegations that the UAE government and state-owned oil company Adnoc had used the COP28 presidency to promote fossil fuel interests. Al-Jaber vehemently denied stating that they were "false, not true, incorrect, and not accurate.”
The internal documents obtained by the BBC and the Center for Climate Reporting reveal plans by the UAE to engage in discussions regarding fossil fuel agreements with 15 nations during the COP28 summit. These documents outline proposed "talking points," including one for China, which proposes a joint assessment of international LNG [liquefied natural gas] opportunities in Mozambique, Canada, and Australia. Additionally, the documents suggest informing a Colombian minister of the UAE's readiness to assist Colombia in developing its fossil fuel resources. Furthermore, talking points for 13 other nations, including Germany and Egypt, suggest conveying the UAE's interest in collaborating with their governments on fossil fuel projects.
Al-Jaber refuted these “claims”, asserting that he had never seen or used such talking points. He further emphasized that the UAE has no need to use COP28 to promote its business interests, highlighting the country's long history of building bridges and forging partnerships.
“Do you think the UAE or myself will need the COP or the COP presidency to go and establish business deals or commercial relationships?...This country over the past 50 years has been built around its ability to build bridges and to create relationships and partnerships.”
Al-Jaber reiterated his “commitment” to keeping the 1.5°C temperature goal within reach and stressed the importance of collaboration and collective action to address climate change.
“We don’t have any time to waste. We need to take urgent action now to reduce emissions. At COP28, every country and every company will be held to account, guided by the north star of keeping 1.5°C within reach…All parties should be prepared to deliver a high ambition decision in response to the global stocktake that reduces emissions while protecting people, lives and livelihoods”

“What’s On The Agenda For Today?”

Updated 10:15h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)

The day's events will begin with the ceremonial opening of the 28th Conference of the Parties (COP 28) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), where several world leaders are expected to deliver their statements.
Following the ceremonial opening, the opening of the COP, the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA 5), and the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 18) will take place.
Upon the conclusion of the opening COP28/CMP18/CMA5, the opening plenary of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 59) will convene, followed by the opening of the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 59). The day will end with the joint plenary session of COP 28, CMP 18, CMA 5, SBSTA 59, and SBI 59.
In addition to the plenary sessions, various closed door meetings, side events and press conferences will take place throughout the day. These events will offer participants the opportunity to delve deeper into specific topics of interest and engage with experts and decision-makers.

What Makes COP28 Special?”

Updated 9:15h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)

COP28 presents a critical opportunity for nations to come together, reaffirm their commitment to the Paris Agreement, and accelerate the transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient future. At the heart of COP28 lies the urgent need to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The latest scientific assessments from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) paint a stark picture of the consequences of inaction. Limiting warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius will require a rapid and unprecedented transformation of global energy systems, a shift away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and a concerted effort to enhance energy efficiency.
On Friday, November 17, global temperatures briefly surpassed 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels, a stark reminder of the urgency with which we must act to address the climate crisis. While this temperature spike was temporary and does not necessarily indicate that the 2-degree threshold has been permanently breached, it underscores the rapid pace at which the planet is warming. The consequences of exceeding this threshold could be devastating, leading to more extreme weather events, rising sea levels, and widespread disruptions to ecosystems and human societies.
A key focus of COP28 will be the Global Stocktake, a comprehensive assessment of collective progress towards the goals of the Paris Agreement. This first-ever stocktake will provide a crucial opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of current climate action and identify areas where enhanced efforts are needed.
COP 28 will be attended by representatives from the 197 Parties to the UNFCCC, as well as representatives from observer organizations, including intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and businesses. The conference is expected to attract a record number of more than 70,000 delegates from around the world.

The Journey From Rio To Sharm El Sheikh

Updated 8:15h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)

For starters, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted in 1992 at the Rio Conference. It sets the overarching framework for international cooperation to combat climate change. Since its inception, the UNFCCC has held annual Conferences of the Parties (COPs) to review progress, make decisions, and adopt new agreements. These COPs have played a pivotal role in shaping the global climate change agenda and pushing for ambitious action. To date, there are 198 parties to the UNFCCC, and it has been ratified by 50 states.
The first COP was held in Berlin, Germany, in 1995, just a year after the UNFCCC entered into force. It was a landmark event that brought together over 117 countries to discuss the implementation of the Convention. The COP established a number of important bodies, including the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI). It also adopted the Berlin Mandate, which called for the development of legally binding targets and timetables for reducing developed country emissions of greenhouse gases.
The Kyoto Protocol, adopted at COP 3 in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997, was a groundbreaking agreement that committed developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 5.2% below 1990 levels by 2012. The Protocol also established emissions trading mechanisms and other cooperative approaches to achieving emissions reductions.
In the years following the Kyoto Protocol, negotiations focused on developing a successor agreement that would encompass all countries, including developing nations. The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference in 2009 was a pivotal moment in these negotiations, but ultimately failed to produce a legally binding agreement. However, it did produce the Copenhagen Accord, a political agreement that endorsed the continuation of the Kyoto Protocol.
COP 21 in Paris, France, in 2015 was a watershed moment in the global climate change movement. It culminated in the adoption of the Paris Agreement, a landmark agreement that set a new global goal of limiting warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius, preferably to 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels. The Agreement also established a framework for international cooperation and support, including climate finance and technology transfer.
COP 26 in Glasgow, Scotland, in 2021, was a critical opportunity to finalize the rules and processes for implementing the Paris Agreement. It also aimed to mobilize more ambitious action from governments and other stakeholders to achieve the Agreement's goals. The COP 26 resulted in a number of important outcomes, including a strengthened global goal on adaptation, progress on climate finance, and increased commitments from countries to reduce their emissions.
COP 27 in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, in 2022, focused on turning the commitments made at COP 26 into concrete action. It aimed to finalize the rules for implementing the Paris Agreement, mobilize climate finance, and accelerate action to reduce emissions. The conference also addressed the growing urgency of climate adaptation and resilience.

Good Morning!

Updated 8:00h GST/UTC+4 – 30/11/23
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)
(UN Climate Change/Kiara Worth)

Welcome to our live coverage of COP28. As we eagerly await the commencement of the plenary sessions, let's delve into the journey so far, the significance of this COP, and the agenda for the day.
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