Variability is the only guarantee when it comes to the rainfall of the Sahel, the transitional zone between the parched Sahara Desert and the wetter savanna in the south. The rains often arrive late, and sometimes they barely come at all. This can lead to devastating crop failures and famine in a region that relies heavily on the rain to grow most of its food. Over the centuries, farmers across the Sahel have adapted to the fickle rainfall by growing crops such as millet, sorghum, peanut, and cowpea, which are well suited to produce grain even during periods of drought stress. Sometimes, however, the crops’ adaptation is not enough to protect them from extended droughts, and grain yields plummet due to lack of water. To confound the already dire problem, the population of the Sahel is growing and crop yields are not increasing in step. When it comes to the Sahel's rainfall, which serves as a transitional region between the arid Sahara Desert and the wetter savanna in the south, variability is the only thing that can be counted on. The rains frequently come late and occasionally not at all. In a region that heavily depends on the rain to grow the majority of its food, this can result in disastrous crop failures and famine. Growing crops like millet, sorghum, peanuts, and cowpea, which are well suited to yield grain even during periods of drought stress, has helped farmers throughout the Sahel adapt throughout the centuries to the variable rainfall However, there are instances when the crops' ability to adapt is insufficient to shield them from protracted droughts, and as a result, grain production suffer from a lack of water. To
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